Neurotoxicity Research

, Volume 35, Issue 2, pp 318–330 | Cite as

Amelioration of Aluminum Maltolate-Induced Inflammation and Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Mediated Apoptosis by Tannoid Principles of Emblica officinalis in Neuronal Cellular Model

  • Mathiyazahan Dhivya Bharathi
  • Arokiasamy Justin-ThenmozhiEmail author
  • Thamilarasan Manivasagam
  • Mashoque Ahmad Rather
  • Chidambaram Saravana Babu
  • Musthafa Mohamed Essa
  • Gilles J. Guillemin


The neuroprotective role of tannoid principles of Emblica officinalis (EoT), an Indian and Chinese traditional medicinal plant against memory loss in aluminum chloride-induced in vivo model of Alzheimer’s disease through attenuating AChE activity, oxidative stress, amyloid and tau toxicity, and apoptosis, was recently reported in our lab. However, to further elucidate the mechanism of neuroprotective effect of EoT, the current study was designed to evaluate endoplasmic reticulum stress-suppressing and anti-inflammatory role of EoT in PC 12 and SH-SY 5Y cells. These cells were divided into four groups: control (aluminum maltolate (Al(mal)3), EoT + Al(mal)3, and EoT alone based on 3-(4, 5-dimethyl 2-yl)-2, and 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. EoT significantly reduced Al(mal)3-induced cell death and attenuated ROS, mitochondrial membrane dysfunction, and apoptosis (protein expressions of Bax; Bcl-2; cleaved caspases 3, 6, 9, 12; and cytochrome c) by regulating endoplasmic reticulum stress (PKR-like ER kinase (PERK), α subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (EIF2-α), C/EBP-homologous protein (CHOP), and high-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1)). Moreover, inflammatory response (NF-κB, IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α) and Aβ toxicity (Aβ1–42) triggered by Al(mal)3 was significantly normalized by EoT. Our results suggested that EoT could be a possible/promising and novel therapeutic lead against Al-induced neurotoxicity. However, further extensive research is needed to prove its efficacy in clinical studies.


Aluminum maltolate Tannoids principles of Emblica officinalis Endoplasmic reticulum stress Inflammation Neurotoxicity 



We gratefully acknowledge the Indian Herbs Research & Supply Company, Saharanpur, India, for the generous supply of standardized extract of E. officinalis tannoids.

Funding Information

Financial assistance in the form of a major research project from the University Grants Commission, India (42–664/2013(SR)/22.03.2013) to Dr. A. Justin Thenmozhi is gratefully acknowledged.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mathiyazahan Dhivya Bharathi
    • 1
  • Arokiasamy Justin-Thenmozhi
    • 1
    Email author
  • Thamilarasan Manivasagam
    • 1
  • Mashoque Ahmad Rather
    • 1
  • Chidambaram Saravana Babu
    • 2
  • Musthafa Mohamed Essa
    • 3
    • 4
    • 5
  • Gilles J. Guillemin
    • 6
  1. 1.Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Faculty of ScienceAnnamalai UniversityAnnamalai NagarIndia
  2. 2.Department of Pharmacology, JSS College of PharmacyJSS UniversityMysoreIndia
  3. 3.Department of Food Science and Nutrition, CAMSSultan Qaboos UniversityMuscatOman
  4. 4.Ageing and Dementia Research GroupSultan Qaboos UniversityMuscatOman
  5. 5.Food and Brain Research FoundationChennaiIndia
  6. 6.Neuroinflammation group, Faculty of Medicine and Health SciencesMacquarie UniversitySydneyAustralia

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