Neurotoxicity Research

, Volume 28, Issue 1, pp 55–93 | Cite as

“Boomerang Neuropathology” of Late-Onset Alzheimer’s Disease is Shrouded in Harmful “BDDS”: Breathing, Diet, Drinking, and Sleep During Aging

  • Mak Adam DaulatzaiEmail author


Brain damage begins years before substantial neurodegeneration and Alzheimer’s dementia. Crucial fundamental activities of life are breathing, eating, drinking, and sleeping. When these pivotal functions are maligned over a prolonged period, they impart escalating dyshomeostasis. The latter may lead to disastrous consequences including cognitive dysfunction and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The current theme here is that multiple pathophysiological derangements are promoted over a prolonged period by the very fundamental activities of life—when “rendered unhealthy.” They may converge on several regulating/modulating factors (e.g., mitochondrial energy production, oxidative stress, innate immunity, and vascular function) and promote insidious neuropathology that culminates in cognitive decline in the aged. This is of course associated with the accumulation of amyloid beta and phosphorylated tau in the brain. Epidemiological, biomarker, and neuroimaging studies have provided significant copious evidence on the presence of indolent prodromal AD neuropathology many years prior to symptomatic onset. Progressive oxidative damage to specific gene promoters may result in gene silencing. A mechanistic link may possibly exist between epigenomic state, DNA damage, and chronically unhealthy/dysfunctional body systems. This paper, therefore, addresses and delineates the deleterious pathophysiological impact triggered by dysfunctional breathing, harmful diet, excess of alcohol consumption, and sleep deprivation; indeed, their impact may alter epigenetic state. It is mandatory, therefore, to abrogate cognitive decline and attenuate AD pathology through adoption of a healthy lifestyle, in conjunction with combination therapy with known moderators of cognitive decline. This strategy may thwart multiple concurrent and synergistic pathologies, including epigenetic dysfunction. A multi-factorial therapeutic intervention is required to overcome wide ranging neuropathology and multi-faceted disease process. Such an approach may attenuate neuropathology and ameliorate memory dysfunction.


Alzheimer’s disease Obstructive sleep apnea Unhealthy diet Excess alcohol consumption Sleep restriction Neuroinflammation Epigenetics 


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© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Sleep Disorders Group, EEE Department, Melbourne School of EngineeringThe University of MelbourneParkvilleAustralia

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