Neurotoxicity Research

, Volume 23, Issue 2, pp 131–144 | Cite as

Neuroinflammation, Neurodegeneration, and Depression

  • Laura L. Hurley
  • Yousef TizabiEmail author
Review Article


Neurodegeneration and depression are two common co-morbid conditions, particularly within the aging population. Research has linked neuroinflammation as a major contributing factor to both of these diseases. The key to neuroinflammation effects on neurodegeneration and depression appears to lie within the dysregulation of the control and release of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. This can come from an internal or external insult to the system, or from changes in the individual due to aging that culminate in immune dysregulation. The need to reduce neuroinflammation has led to extensive research into neuroprotectants. We discuss the efficacy found with nicotine, alcohol, resveratrol, curcumin, and ketamine. Our main focus will be on what research tells us about the connections between neuroinflammation, neurodegeneration, and depression, and the hope that neuroprotectants research gives people suffering from neurodegeneration and depression stemming from neuroinflammation. We will conclude by making suggestions for future research in this area.


Neuroinflammation Neurodegeneration Depression Neuroprotection Nicotine Alcohol Resveratrol Curcumin Ketamine 



This study was supported by NIH/NIGMS (2 SO6 GM08016-39) and NIH-RCMI 2 G12 RR003048.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Pharmacology, College of MedicineHoward UniversityWashingtonUSA

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