Neurotoxicity Research

, Volume 22, Issue 1, pp 1–15 | Cite as

Rutin Protects Dopaminergic Neurons from Oxidative Stress in an Animal Model of Parkinson’s Disease

  • Mohd. Moshahid Khan
  • Syed Shadab Raza
  • Hayate Javed
  • Ajmal Ahmad
  • Andleeb Khan
  • Farah Islam
  • Mohammed M. Safhi
  • Fakhrul Islam


This study was undertaken to investigate the neuroprotective effects of rutin (vitamin P) on 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced Parkinson’s disease (PD) in rats. Oxidative stress and inflammation is an important event, play a crucial role in neurodegenerative diseases. Rutin has been shown to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions, and thus was tested for its beneficial effects using 6-OHDA-induced PD rat model. Male Wistar rats were pre-treated with rutin (25 mg/kg bwt, orally) for 3 weeks and subjected to unilateral intrastriatal injection of 6-OHDA (10 μg in 0.1% ascorbic acid in normal saline). Three weeks after 6-OHDA infusion, rats were tested for neurobehavioral activity, and were killed after 4 weeks of 6-OHDA infusion for the estimation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, glutathione, and its dependent enzymes (glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase), dopamine (DA) and its metabolite 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl acetic acid. The increase in 6-OHDA-induced rotations and deficits in locomotor activity and motor coordination and decrease in antioxidant level, DA content and its metabolite and increase in the number of dopaminergic D2 receptors in striatum were protected significantly with lesioned group pre-treated with rutin. These findings were further supported by the histopathological and immunohistochemical findings in the substantia nigra that showed that rutin protected neurons from deleterious effects of 6-OHDA. These results suggest that the consumption of rutin, which is novel vitamin, may have the possibility of protective effect against the neurological disorder such as PD.


Rutin 6-Hydroxydopamine Behavioral activity Oxidative stress Inflammation Parkinson’s disease 



The authors thank the Department of Ayurveda, Yoga & Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and Homoeopathy (AYUSH), Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India, New Delhi, for financial assistance. We greatly acknowledge Ms. Lorie Leo, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Iowa, for reviewing and editing this manuscript. Technical assistance of Dharamvir Singh is gratefully appreciated.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mohd. Moshahid Khan
    • 1
    • 3
  • Syed Shadab Raza
    • 1
  • Hayate Javed
    • 1
  • Ajmal Ahmad
    • 1
    • 4
  • Andleeb Khan
    • 1
  • Farah Islam
    • 2
  • Mohammed M. Safhi
    • 5
  • Fakhrul Islam
    • 1
    • 5
  1. 1.Neurotoxicology Laboratory, Department of Medical Elementology & ToxicologyJamia Hamdard (Hamdard University)New DelhiIndia
  2. 2.Department of BiotechnologyFaculty of Pharmacy, Jamia Hamdard (Hamdard University)New DelhiIndia
  3. 3.Department of Neurology, Carver College of MedicineUniversity of IowaIowaUSA
  4. 4.Department of NeurologyGeorgia Health Science UniversityAugustaUSA
  5. 5.Neuroscience and Toxicology Unit, Faculty of PharmacyJazan UniversityGizanKingdom of Saudi Arabia

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