Neurotoxicity Research

, Volume 21, Issue 3, pp 245–255 | Cite as

Effect of Aspartame on Oxidative Stress and Monoamine Neurotransmitter Levels in Lipopolysaccharide-Treated Mice

  • Omar M. E. Abdel-Salam
  • Neveen A. Salem
  • Jihan Seid Hussein
Article

Abstract

This study aimed at investigating the effect of the sweetener aspartame on oxidative stress and brain monoamines in normal circumstances and after intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 100 μg/kg) in mice. Aspartame (0.625–45 mg/kg) was given via subcutaneous route at the time of endotoxin administration. Mice were euthanized 4 h later. Reduced glutathione (GSH), lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances; TBARS), and nitrite concentrations were measured in brain and liver. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and glucose were determined in brain. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were measured in liver. The administration of only aspartame (22.5 and 45 mg/kg) increased brain TBARS by 17.7–32.8%, decreased GSH by 25.6–31.6%, and increased TNF-α by 16.7–44%. Aspartame caused dose-dependent inhibition of brain serotonin, noradrenaline, and dopamine. Aspartame did not alter liver TBARS, nitrite, GSH, AST, ALT, or ALP. The administration of LPS increased nitrite in brain and liver by 26.8 and 37.1%, respectively; decreased GSH in brain and liver by 21.6 and 31.1%, respectively; increased brain TNF-α by 340.4%, and glucose by 39.9%, and caused marked increase in brain monoamines. LPS increased AST, ALT, and ALP in liver tissue by 84.4, 173.7, and 258.9%, respectively. Aspartame given to LPS-treated mice at 11.25 and 22.5 mg/kg increased brain TBARS by 15.5–16.9%, nitrite by 12.6–20.1%, and mitigated the increase in monoamines. Aspartame did not alter liver TBARS, nitrite, GSH, ALT, AST, or ALP. Thus, the administration of aspartame alone or in the presence of mild systemic inflammatory response increases oxidative stress and inflammation in the brain, but not in the liver.

Keywords

Aspartame Lipopolysaccharide Oxidative stress Brain Liver Mice 

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Omar M. E. Abdel-Salam
    • 1
  • Neveen A. Salem
    • 1
  • Jihan Seid Hussein
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Toxicology and NarcoticsNational Research CentreCairoEgypt
  2. 2.Department of Medical BiochemistryNational Research CentreCairoEgypt

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