Neurotoxicity Research

, Volume 21, Issue 2, pp 195–209 | Cite as

Physical Exercise Alleviates ADHD Symptoms: Regional Deficits and Development Trajectory

  • Trevor ArcherEmail author
  • Richard M. Kostrzewa


The heterogeneous, chronic, and proliferating aspect of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and comorbidities covers heritability, cognitive, emotional, motor, and everyday behavioral domains that place individuals presenting the condition at some considerable disadvantage. Disruption of “typical developmental trajectories” in the manifestation of gene-environment interactive predispositions implies that ADHD children and adolescents may continue to perform at defective levels as adults with regard to academic achievement, occupational enterprises, and interpersonal relationships, despite the promise of pharmacotherapeutic treatments. Physical exercise provides a plethora of beneficial effects against stress, anxiety, depression, negative affect and behavior, poor impulse control, and compulsive behavior concomitant with improved executive functioning, working memory and positive affect, as well as improved conditions for relatives and care-givers. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, an essential element in normal brain development that promotes health-associated behaviors and quality-of-life, though reduced in ADHD, is increased markedly by the intervention of regular physical exercise. Functional, regional, and biomarker deficits, as well as hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal disruptions, have been improved through regular and carefully applied exercise programs. In view of the complications involving ADHD with co-morbidities, such as obesity, the influence of regular physical exercise has not been found negligible. Physical exercise bestows a propensity for eventual manifestation of “redifferentiated” developmental trajectories that may equip ADHD adults with a prognosis that is more adaptive functionally, independent of the applications of other therapeutic agents and treatments.


ADHD Regional deficits Developmental trajectory Biomarkers Cognition Emotion Co-morbidity Physical exercise 


  1. Amiri S, Fakhari A, Maheri M, Mohammadpoor Asl A (2010) Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in primary school children of Tabriz, North-West Iran. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 24:597–601PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anastopoulos AD, Shelton TL, DuPaul GJ, Guevremont DC (1993) Parent training for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: its impact on parent functioning. J Abnorm Child Psychol 21(5):581–596PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Anastopoulos AD, Smith TF, Garrett ME, Morrissey-Kane E, Schatz NK, Sommer JL, Kollins SH, Ashley-Kock A (2010) Self-regulation of emotion, functional impairment, and comorbidity among children with AD/HD. J Atten Dis. doi: 10.1177/1087054710370567
  4. Angold A, Costello EJ, Erkanli A (1999) Comorbidity. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 40:57–87PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Archer T (2010) Physical exercise alleviates debilities of normal aging and Alzheimer’s disease. Acta Neurol Scand. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0404.2010.01412.x
  6. Archer T (2011) Functional and structural MRI studies on impulsiveness: attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and borderline personality disorder. In: Bright P (ed) Neuroimaging, submittedGoogle Scholar
  7. Archer T, Fredriksson A (2010) Physical exercise attenuates MPTP-induced deficits in mice. Neurotox Res 18:313–327PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Archer T, Palomo T, Fredriksson A (2002a) Neonatal 6-hydroxydopamine-induced hyperactivity: Blockade by dopamine reuptake inhibitors and effect of acute d-amphetamine. Neurotox Res 4:247–266PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Archer T, Palomo T, Fredriksson A (2002b) Functional deficits following neonatal dopamine depletion and isolation housing: circular water maze acquisition under pre-exposure conditions and motor activity. Neurotox Res 4:503–522PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Archer T, Johansson B, Fredriksson A (2010a) Exercise alleviates Parkinsonism: Clinical and Laboratory Evidence. Acta Neurol Scand. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0404.2010.01360.x
  11. Archer T, Fredriksson A, Schütz E, Kostrzewa RM (2010b) Influence of physical exercise on neuroimmunological functioning and health: aging and stress. Neurotox Res. doi: 10.1007/s12640-010-9224-9
  12. Archer T, Moradi S, Welin A, Hakiminejad N, Andersson-Arntén AC (2011a) Physical exercise, stress and affect (Submitted)Google Scholar
  13. Archer T, Oscar-Berman M, Blum K (2011b) Epigenetics in developmental disorder: ADHD and endophenotypes. J Genet Syndr Gene Ther 2:104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Arnsten AF, Pliszka SR (2011) Catecholamine influences on prefrontal cortical function: relevance to treatment of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and related disorders. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 99:211–216PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Aureli A, Del Beato T, Sebastiani P, Marimpietri A, Melillo CV, Sechi E, Di Loreto S (2010) Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and intellectual disability: a study of association with brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene polymorphisms. Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol 23:873–880PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Azrin NH, Ehle CT, Beaumont AL (2006) Physical exercise as a reinforcer to promote calmness of an ADHD child. Behav Modif 30:564–570PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bailey RK, Ali S, Jabeen S, Akpudo H, Avenido JU, Bailey T, Lyons J, Whitehead AA (2010) Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in African American youth. Curr Psychiatry Rep 12:396–402PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Banaschewski T, Hollis C, Oosterlaan J, Roeyers H, Rubia K, Willcutt E, Taylor E (2005) Towards an understanding of unique and shared pathways in the psychopathology of ADHD. Dev Sci 8:132–140PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Baquet G, Van Praagh E, Berthoin AL (2003) Endurance training and aerobic fitness in young people. Sports Med 33:1127–1143PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Barkley RA (2004) Adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: an overview of empirically based treatments. J Psychiatr Pract 10:39–56PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Barkley RA (2010) Differential diagnosis of adults with ADHD: the role of executive function and self-regulation. J Clin Psychiatry 71(7):e17PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Barkley RA, Fischer M (2010) The unique contribution of emotional impulsiveness to impairment. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 49:503–513PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Barkley RA, Murphy KR (2010) Impairment in occupational functioning and adult ADHD: the predictive utility of executive function (EF) ratings versus EF tests. Arch Clin Neuropsychol 25:157–173PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Barkley RA, Knouse LE, Murphy KR (2011) Correspondence and disparity in the self- and other ratings of current and childhood ADHD symptoms and impairment in adults with ADHD. Psychol Assess 23:437–446PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Bartscherer ML, Dole RL (2005) Interactive metronome training for a 9-year-old boy with attention and motor coordination difficulties. Physiother Theory Pract 21:257–269PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Bauermeister JJ, Canino G, Polanczyk G, Rohde LA (2010) ADHD across cultures: is there evidence for a bidimensional organization of symptoms? J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol 39:362–372PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Beck SJ, Hanson CA, Puffenberger SS, Benninger KL, Benninger WB (2010) A controlled trial of working memory training for children and adolescents with ADHD. J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol 39:825–836PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Benkert D, Krause KH, Wasem J, Aidelsburger P (2010) Effectiveness of pharmaceutical therapy of ADHD (attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder) in adults—health technology assessment.GMS Health Technol Assess. 2010 Sep 7;6:Doc13. doi: 10.3205/hta000091, URN:urn:nbn:de:0183-hta0000910
  29. Berger I, Goldzweig G (2010) Objective measures of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a pilot study. Isr Med Assoc J 12:531–535PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Biederman J (2004) Impact of comorbidity in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J Clin Psychiatr 65(S3):3–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Biederman J, Mick E, Faraone SV (1998) Depression in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder AD/HD children: “True” depression or demoralization? J Affect Dis 47:113–122PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Biederman J, Petty CR, Clarke A, Lomedico A, Faraone SV (2011) Predictors of persistent ADHD: an 11-year follow-up study. J Psychiatr Res 45(2):150–155PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Binder E, Droste SK, Ohi F, Reul JM (2004) Regular voluntary exercise reduces anxiety-related behavior and impulsiveness in mice. Behav Brain Res 155:197–206PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Bluechard MH, Shepard RJ (1995) Using an extracurricular physical activity program to enhance social skills. J Learn Disabil 28:160–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Bock N, Gerlach M, Rothenberger A (2010) Postnatal brain development and psychotropic drugs. Effects on animals and animal models of depression and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Curr Pharm Des 16(22):2474–2483PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Brinkman WB, Epstein JN (2011) Treatment planning for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: treatment utilization and family preferences. Patient Prefer Adherence 5:45–56PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Buck SM, Hillman CH, Castelli DM (2007) The relation of aerobic fitness to stroop task performance in preadolescent children. Med Sci Sport Exerc 40:166–172Google Scholar
  38. Burdette JH, Laurienti PJ, Espeland MA, Morgan A, Telesford Q, Vechlekar CD, Hayasaka S, Jennings JM, Katula JA, Kraft RA, Rejeski WJ (2010) Using network science to evaluate exercise-associated brain changes in older adults. Front Aging Neurosci 2:23PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Bussey TJ, Everitt BJ, Robbins TW (1997) Dissociable effects of cingulate and medial frontal cortex lesions on stimulus-reward learning using a novel Pavlovian autoshaping procedure for the rat: implications for the neurobiology of emotion. Behav Neurosci 111:908–919PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Casey BJ, Castellanos FX, Giedd JN, Marsh WL, Hamburger SD, Schubert AB, Vauss YC, Vaituzis AC, Dickstein DP, Sarfatti SE, Rapoport JL (1997) Implication of right frontostriatal circuitry in response inhibition and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 36:374–383PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Casey BJ, Epstein JN, Buhle J, Liston C, Davidson MC, Tonev ST, Spicer J, Niogi S, Millner AJ, Reiss A, Garrett A, Hinshaw SP, Greenhill LL, Shafritz KM, Vitolo A, Kotler LA, Jarrett MA, Glover G (2007) Frontostriatal connectivity and its role in cognitive control in parent-child dyads with ADHD. Am J Psychiatry 164:1729–1736PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Castellanos FX, Lee PP, Sharp W, Jeffries NO, Greenstein DK, Clasen LS, Blumenthal JD, James RS, Ebens CL, Walter JM, Zijdenbos A, Evans AC, Giedd JN, Rapoport JL (2002) Developmental trajectories of brain volume abnormalities in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. JAMA 288:1740–1748PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Cechetti F, Fochesatto C, Scopel D, Nardin P, Gonçalves CA, Netto CA, Siqueira IR (2008) Effect of neuroprotective exercise protocol on oxidative state and BDNF levels in the rat hippocampus. Brain Res 1188:182–188PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Chamberlain SR, Robbins TW, Winder-Rhodes S, Müller U, Sahakian BJ, Blackwell AD, Barnett JH (2011) Translational approaches to frontostriatal dysfunction in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder using a computerized neuropsychological battery. Biol Psychiatry 69:1192–1203PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Chan JP, Unger TJ, Byrnes J, Rios M (2006) Examination of behavioral deficits triggered by targeting Bdnf in fetal or postnatal brains of mice. Neuroscience 142:49–58PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Chan RC, McAlonan GM, Yang B, Lin L, Shum D, Manschreck TC (2010) Prevalence of neurological soft signs and their neuropsychological correlates in typically developing Chinese children and Chinese children with ADHD. Dev Neuropsychol 35:698–711PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Cho SC, Kim HW, Kim BN, Kim JW, Shin MS, Chung S, Cho DY, Jung SW, Yoo HJ, Chung IW, Chung US, Son JW (2010) Gender-specific association of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Korean Neuropsychiatr Assoc 7:285–290Google Scholar
  48. Clark PJ, Kohman RA, Miller DS, Bhattacharya TK, Brzezinska WJ, Rhodes JS (2011) Genetic influences on exercise-induced adult hippocampal neurogenesis across 12 divergent mouse strains.Genes Brain Behav. doi: 10.1111/j.1601-183X.2011.00674.x
  49. Clizbe D, Getchell N (2010) The development of period correction processes in motor coordination: adaptation to temporal perturbation. Mot Control 14:59–67Google Scholar
  50. Colcombe SJ, Erickson KI, Raz N, Webb AG, Cohen NJ, McAuley E, Elavky S, Marquez DX, Hu L, Kramer AF (2003) Aerobic fitness reduces brain tissue loss in aging humans. J Gerontol A 58:176–180Google Scholar
  51. Colcombe SJ, Erickson KI, Scalf PE, Kim JS, Prakash R, McAuley E, Elavsky S, Marquez DX, Hu L, Kramer AF (2006) Aerobic exercise training increases brain volume in aging humans. J Gerontol A 61:1166–1170Google Scholar
  52. Collins A, Hill LE, Chandramohan Y, Whitcomb D, Droste SK, Reul JM (2009) Exercise improves cognitive responses to psychological stress through enhancement of epigenetic mechanisms and gene expression in the dentate gyrus. PLoS One 4:e4330PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Connolly A, Vance A (2010) Psychosocial factors associated with parent and teacher reports of aggression in children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Aust N Z J Psychiatry 44:667–675PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Cook BJ, Hausenblas HA (2011) Eating-disorder specific health-related quality of life and exercise in college females. Qual Life Res. doi: 10.1007/s11136-011-9879-6
  55. Davidson MC, Amso D, Anderson LA, Diamond A (2006) Development of cognitive control and executive functions from 4 to 13 years: evidence from manipulations of memory, inhibition, and task switching. Neuropsychologia 44:2037–2078PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Davis CL, Tomporowski PD, McDowell JD, Austin BP, Miller PH, Yanasak NE, Allison JD, Naglieri JA (2011) Exercise improves executive function and achievement and alters brain activation in overweight children: a randomized, controlled trial. Health Psychol 30:91–98PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. De Pauw SS, Mervielde I (2011) The role of temperament and personality in problem behaviors of children with ADHD. J Abnorm Child Psychol 39:277–291PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Dibbets P, Evers EA, Hurks PP, Bakker K, Jolles J (2010) Differential brain activation patterns in adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) associated with task switching. Neuropsychology 24:413–423PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Dietrich A, Audiffren M (2011) The reticular-activating hypofrontality (RAH) model of acute exercise. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 35:1305–1325PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Dougherty DM, Bjork JM, Harper RA, Marsh DM, Moeller FG, Mathias CW, Swann AC (2003) Behavioral impulsivity paradigms: a comparison in hospitalized adolescents with disruptive behavior disorders. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 44:1145–1157PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Durston S, Tottenham NT, Thomas KM, Davidson MC, Eigsti IM, Yang Y, Ulug AM, Casey BJ (2003) Differential patterns of striatal activation in young children with and without ADHD. Biol Psychiatry 53:871–878PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Eigsti IM, Zayas V, Mischel W, Shoda Y, Ayduk O, Dadlani MB, Davidson MC, Lawrence Aber J, Casey BJ (2006) Predicting cognitive control from preschool to late adolescence and young adulthood. Psychol Sci 17:478–484PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Erickson KI, Voss MW, Prakash RS, Basak C, Szabo A, Chaddock L, Kim JS, Heo S, Alves H, White SM, Wojcicki TR, Mailey E, Vieira VJ, Martin SA, Pence BD, Woods JA, McAuley E, Kramer AF (2011) Exercise training increases size of hippocampus and improves memory. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 108:3017–3022PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Erhardt D, Baker BL (1990) The effects of behavioral parent training on families with young hyperactive children. J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry 21(2):121–132PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Ernst M, Kimes AS, London ED, Matochik JA, Eldreth D, Tata S, Contoreggi C, Leff M, Bolla K (2003) Neural substrates of decision making in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Am J Psychiatry 160(6):1061–1070PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Etscheidt MA, Ayllon T (1987) Contingent exercise to decrease hyperactivity. J Child Adolesc Psychother 4:192–198Google Scholar
  67. Fair DA, Cohen AL, Power JD, Dosenbach NU, Church JA, Miezin FM, Schlaggar BL, Petersen SE (2009) Functional brain networks develop from a “local to distributed” organization. PLoS Comp Biol 5:1–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Fayyad J, De Graaf R, Kessler R, Alonso J, Angermeyer M, Demyttenaere K, De Girolamo G, Haro JM, Karam EG, Lara C, Lépine JP, Ormel J, Posada-Villa J, Zaslavsky AM, Jin R (2007) Cross-national and prevalence and correlates of adult attention-deficit hyperactivity. Br J Psychiatry 190:402–409PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Fernando ABP, Robbins TW (2011) Animal models of neuropsychiatric disorders. Annu Rev Clin Psychol 7:15.1–15.23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Flöel A, Ruscheweyh R, Krüger K, Willemer C, Winter B, Völker K, Lohmann H, Zitzmann M, Mooren F, Breitenstein C, Knecht S (2010) Physical activity and memory functions: are neurotrophins and cerebral gray matter volume the missing link? Neuroimage 49:2756–2763PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Flohr JA, Saunders MJ, Evans SW, Raggi V (2004) Effects of physical activity on academic performance and behavior in children with ADHD. Am Coll Sports Med 36:S145–S146Google Scholar
  72. Fontaine NM, Rijsdijk FV, McCrory EJ, Viding E (2010) Etiology of different developmental trajectories of callous-unemotional traits. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 49(7):656–664PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Fredriksson A, Stigsdotter IM, Hurtig A, Ewalds-Kvist B, Archer T (2011) Running wheel activity restores MPTP-induced functional deficits. J Neural Transm 118:407–420PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Fumagalli F, Racagni G, Colombo E, Riva MA (2003) BDNF gene expression is reduced in the frontal cortex of dopamine transporter knockout mice. Mol Psychiatry 8:898–899PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Gadow KD, Roohi J, DeVincent CJ, Kirsch S, Hatchwell E (2009) Association of COMT (Val158Met) and BDNF (Val66Met) gene polymorphisms with anxiety, ADHD and tics in children with autism spectrum disorder. J Autism Dev Disord 39:1542–1551PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Gainetdinov RR (2008) Dopamine transporter mutant mice in experimental neuropharmacology. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 377:301–313PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Gapin J, Etnier JL (2010) The relationship between physical activity and executive function performance in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. J Sport Exerc Psychol 32:753–763PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Gapin J, Labban JD, Etnier JL (2011) The effects of physical activity on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms: the evidence. Prev Med 52:S70–S74PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Garrett A, Penniman L, Epstein JN, Casey BJ, Hinshaw SP, Glover G, Tonev S, Vitolo A, Davidson M, Spicer J, Greenhill LL, Reiss AL (2008) Neuroanatomical abnormalities in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 47:1321–1328PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Geier CF, Terwilliger R, Teslovich T, Velanova K, Luna B (2010) Immaturities in reward processing and its influences on inhibitory control in adolescence. Cereb Cortex 20:1613–1629PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Geurts HM, Vertie S, Oosterlaan J, Roeyers H, Serpeant JA (2004) How specific are executive functioning deficits in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and autism? J Child Psychol Psychiatry 45:836–854PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Ghanizadeh A (2010) Predictors of different types of developmental coordination problems in ADHD: the effect of age, gender, ADHD symptom severity and comorbidities. Neuropediatrics 41:176–181PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Gilbert DL, Isaacs KM, Augusta M, Macneil LK, Mostofsky SH (2011) Motor cortex inhibition: a marker of ADHD behavior and motor development in children. Neurology 76:615–621PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Gomez-Pinilla F, Zhuang Y, Feng J, Ying Z, Fan G (2011) Exercise impacts brain-derived neurothrphic factor plasticity by engaging mechanisms of epigenetic regulation. Eur J Neurosci 33:383–390PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Gourley SL, Howell JL, Rios M, DiLeone RJ, Taylor JR (2009) Prelimbic cortex bdnf knock-down reduces instrumental responding in extinction. Learn Mem 16:756–760PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Graham DA, Rush JW (2009) Cyclooxygenase and thromboxane/prostaglandin receptor contribute to aortic endothelium-dependent dysfunction in aging female spontaneously hypertensive rats. J Appl Physiol 107(4):1059–1067PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Greenhill LL, Halperin JM, Abikoff H (1999) Stimulant medications. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 38(5):503–512PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Griesbach GS, Hovda DA, Molteni A, Wu A, Gomez-Pinilla F (2004) Voluntary exercise following traumatic brain injury: brain-derived neurotrophic factor upregulation and recovery of function. Neuroscience 125:129–139PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Gustafsson P, Källén K (2011) Perinatal, maternal, and fetal characteristics of children diagnosed with attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder: results from a population-based study utilizing the Swedish Medical Birth Register. Dev Med Child Neurol 53:263–268PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Hagmann P, Cammoun L, Gigandet X, Meuli R, Honey CJ, Wedeen VJ, Sporns O (2008) Mapping the structural core of human cerebral cortex. PLoS Biol 6: e159. doi:101371/journal.pbio.0060159
  91. Halperin JM, Healey DM (2011) The influences of environment enrichment, cognitive enhancement, and physical exercise on brain development: Can we alter the developmental trajectory of ADHD. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 35:621–634PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Hardin MG, Mandell D, Mueller SC, Dahl RE, Pine DS, Ernst M (2009) Inhibitory control in anxious and healthy adolescents is modulated by incentive and incidental affective stimuli. Child Psychol Psychiatry 50:1550–1558CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Helpern JA, Adisetiyo V, Falangola MF, Hu C, Di Martino A, Williams K, Castellanos FX, Jensen JH (2011) Preliminary evidence of altered grey and white matter microstructural development in the frontal lobe of adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: a diffusional kurtosis imaging study. J Magn Reson Imaging 33:17–23PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Hill LJ, Williams JH, Aucott L, Thomson J, Mon-Williams M (2011) How does exercise benefit performance on cognitive tests in primary-school pupils? Dev Med Child Neurol 53:630–635PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Hillman CH, Castelli DM, Buck SM (2005) Aerobic fitness and neurocognitive function in healthy preadolescent children. Med Sci Sport Exerc 37:1967–1974CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Hillman CH, Erickson KI, Kramer AF (2008) Be smart, exercise your heart: exercise effects on brain and cognition. Nature Rev Neurosci 9:58–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Hopkins ME, Bucci DJ (2010) BDNF expression in perirhinal cortex is associated with exercise-induced improvement in object recognition memory. Neurobiol Learn Mem 94:278–284PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Hopkins ME, Sharma M, Evans GC, Bucci DJ (2009) Voluntary physical exercise alters attentional orientation and social behavior in a rat model of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Behav Neurosci 123:599–606PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Huang EJ, Reichardt LF (2001) Neurotrophins: roles in neuronal development and function. Annu Rev Neurosci 24:677–736PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Hummer TA, Kronenberger WG, Wang Y, Dunn DW, Mosier KM, Kalnin AJ, Mathews VP (2010) Executive functioning characteristics associated with ADHD comorbidity in adolescents with disruptive behavior disorders. J Abnorm Child Psychol 39:11–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Humphreys KL, Mehta N, Lee SS (2010) Association of Parental ADHD and Depression With Externalizing and Internalizing Dimensions of Child Psychopathology. J Atten Disord. doi: 10.1177/1087054710387264
  102. Husain K (2004) Interaction of exercise training and chronic NOS inhibition on blood pressure, heart rate, NO and antioxidants in plasma of rats. Pathophysiology 10(1):47–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Hyman C, Hofer M, Barde YA, Juhasz M, Yancopoulos GD, Squinto SP, Lindsay RM (1991) BDNF is a neurotrophic factor for dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra. Nature 350:230–232PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Jensen JH, Helpern JA, Ramani A, Lu H, Kaczynski K (2005) Diffusional kurtosis imaging: the quantification of non-gaussian water diffusion by means of magnetic resonance imaging. Magn Reson Med 53:1432–1440PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Johnson KA, Robertson IH, Kelly SP, Silk TJ, Barry E, Dáibhis A, Watchorn A, Keavey M, Fitzgerald M, Gallagher L, Gill M, Bellgrove MA (2007) Dissociation in performance of children with ADHD and high-functioning autism on a task of sustained attention. Neuropsychologia 45:2234–2245PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Kantak KM, Singh T, Kerstetter KA, Dembro KA, Mutebi MM, Harvey RC, Deschepper CF, Dwoskin LP (2008) Advancing the spontaneous hypertensive rat model of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Behav Neurosci 29:496–505Google Scholar
  107. Ke Z, Yip SP, Li L, Zheng XX, Tong KY (2011) The effects of voluntary, involuntary, and forced exercises on brain-derived neurotrophic factor and motor function recovery: a rat brain ischemia model. PLoS One 6(2):e16643PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Kessler RC, Adler L, Barkley R, Biederman J, Conners CK, Demler O, Faraone SV, Greenhill LL, Howes MJ, Secnik K, Spencer T, Ustun TB, Walters EE, Zaslavsky AM (2006) The prevalence and correlates of adult ADHD in the United States: results from the national comorbidity survey replication. Am J Psychiatry 163:716–723PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Kessler RC, Green JG, Adler LA, Barkley RA, Chatterji S, Faraone SV, Finkelman M, Greenhill LL, Gruber MJ, Jewell M, Russo LJ, Sampson NA, Van Brunt DL (2010) Structure and diagnosis of adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: analysis of expanded symptom criteria from the Adult ADHD Clinical Diagnostic Scale. Arch Gen Psychiatry 67:1168–1178PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Kessler RC, Ormel J, Petukhova M, McLaughlin KA, Green JG, Russo LJ, Stein DJ, Zaslavsky AM, Aguilar-Gaxiola S, Alonso J, Andrade L, Benjet C, de Girolamo G, de Graaf R, Demyttenaere K, Fayyad J, Haro JM, Hu C, Karam A, Lee S, Lepine JP, Matchsinger H, Mihaescu-Pintia C, Posada-Villa J, Sagar R, Ustün TB (2011) Development of lifetime comorbidity in the World Health Organization world mental health surveys. Arch Gen Psychiatry 68:90–100PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Klein AB, Williamson R, Santini MA, Clemmensen C, Ettrup A, Rios M, Knudsen GM, Aznar S (2011) Blood BDNF concentrations reflect brain-tissue BDNF levels across species. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol 14:347–353PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Kleinman NL, Durkin M, Melkonian A, Markosyan K (2009) Incremental employee health benefit costs, absence days, and turnover among employees with ADHD and among employees with children with ADHD. J Occup Environ Med 51:1247–1255PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Knutson KC, O’Malley M (2010) Adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a survey of diagnosis and treatment practices. J Am Acad Nurse Pract 22:593–601PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Kohno H, Furukawa S, Naito H, Minamitani K, Ohmori D, Yamakura F (2002) Contribution of nitric oxide, angiotensin II and superoxide dismutase to exercise-induced attenuation of blood pressure elevation in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Japan Heart J 43(1):25–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Koshy G, Delpisheh A, Brabin BJ (2011) Childhood obesity and parental smoking as risk factors for childhood ADHD in Liverpool children. Atten Defic Hyperact Disord 3:21–28PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Krause KH, Dreset SH, Krause J, la Fougere C, Ackenheil M (2003) The dopamine transporter and neuroimaging in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 27(7):605–613PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Lara C, Fayyad J, de Graaf R, Kessler RC, Aguilar-Gaxiola S, Angermeyer M, Demytteneare K, de Girolamo G, Haro JM, Jin R, Karam EG, Lépine JP, Mora ME, Ormel J, Posada-Villa J, Sampson N (2009) Childhood predictors of adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: results from the World Health Organization World Mental Health Survey Initiative. Biol Psychiatry 65(1):46–54PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Lavie CJ, Milani RV (2010) Cardiac rehabilitation, exercise training, and anxiety. J Am Coll Cardiol 56:1681–1682PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Lee J, Laurin N, Crosbie J, Ickowicz A, Pathare T, Malone M, Tannock R, Kennedy JL, Schachar R, Barr CL (2007) Association study of the brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) gene in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Am J Med Genet B 144B:976–981CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Lista I, Sorrentino G (2010) Biological mechanisms of physical activity in preventing cognitive decline. Cell Mol Neurobiol 30:493–503PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Liston C, Watts R, Tottenham N, Davidson MC, Niogi S, Ulug AM, Casey BJ (2006) Frontostriatal microstructure modulates efficient recruitment of cognitive control. Cereb Cortex 16:553–560PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Ma L, Chen YH, Chen H, Liu YY, Wang YX (2011) The function of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis in children with ADHD. Brain Res 1368:159–162PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Maddigan B, Hodgson P, Heath S, Dick B, St John K, McWilliam-Burton T, Snelgrove C, White H (2003) The effects of massage therapy & exercise therapy on children/adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Can Child Adolesc Psychiatr Rev 12:40–43PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Majorek M, Tüchelmann T, Heusser P (2004) Therapeutic Eurythmy-movement therapy for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): a pilot study. Complement Ther Nurs Midwifery 10:46–53PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Markowitz SM, Arent SM (2010) The exercise and affect relationship: evidence for the dual-mode model and a modified opponent process theory. J Sport Exerc Psychol 32:711–730PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Martel MM (2009) Research review: a new perspective on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: emotion dysregulation and trait models. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 50:1042–1051PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Martinussen R, Hayden J, Hogg-Johnson S, Tannock R (2005) A meta-analysis of working memory impairments in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psych 44(4):377–384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Matos M, Bauermeister JJ, Bernal G (2009) Parent-child interaction therapy for Puerto Rican preschool children with ADHD and behavior problems: a pilot efficacy study. Fam Process 48:232–252PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. McAlonan GM, Cheung V, Cheung C, Chua SE, Murphy DGM, Suckling J, Tai K-S, Yip LKC, Leung P, Ho TP (2007) Mapping brain structure in attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder: a voxel-based MRI study of regional grey and white matter volume. Psychiatr Res Neuroimaging 154:171–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. McConaughy SH, Harder VS, Antshel KM, Gordon M, Eiraldi R, Dumenci L (2010) Incremental validity of test session and classroom observations in a multimethod assessment of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol 39:650–666PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. McKercher CM, Schmidt MD, Sanderson KA, Patton GC, Dwyer T, Venn AJ (2009) Physical activity and depression in young adults. Am J Prev Med 36:161–164PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. McMorris T, Sproule J, Turner A, Hale BJ (2011) Acute, intermediate intensity exercise, and speed and accuracy in working memory tasks: a meta-analytical comparison of effects. Physiol Behav 102:421–428PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Medina JA, Netto TL, Muszkat M, Medina AC, Botter D, Orbetelli R, Scaramuzza LF, Sinnes EG, Vilela M, Miranda MC (2010) Exercise impact on sustained attention of ADHD children, methylphenidate effects. Atten Defic Hyperact Disord 2:49–58PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Meunier D, Lambiotte R, Fornito A, Ersche KD, Bullmore ET (2009) Hierarchical modularity in human brain functional networks. Front Neuroinform 3:37. doi: 10.3389/neuro.11.037.2009 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Meyers J, Classi P, Wietecha L, Candrilli S (2010) Economic burden and comorbidities of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder among pediatric patients hospitalized in the United States. Child Adolesc Psychiatry Ment Health 4:31PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Müller DJ, Chiesa A, Mandelli L, De Luca V, De Ronchi D, Jain U, Serretti A, Kennedy JL (2010) Correlation of a set of gene variants, life events and personality features on adult ADHD severity. J Psychiatr Res 44:598–604PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Naylor AS, Persson AI, Eriksson AI, Jonsdottir IA, Thorlin T (2005) Extended voluntary running inhibits exercise-induced adult hippocampal progenitor proliferation in the spontaneously hypertensive rat. J Neurophysiol 93:2406–2414PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Naylor AS, Bull C, Nilsson MK, Zhu C, Björk-Eriksson T, Eriksson PS, Blomgren K, Kuhn HG (2008) Voluntary running rescues adult hippocampal neurogenesis after irradiation of the young mouse brain. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 105:14632–14637PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Oades RD, Lasky-Su J, Christiansen H, Faraone SV, Sonuga-Barke EJ, Banaschewski T, Chen W, Anney RJ, Buitelaar JK, Ebstein RP, Franke B, Gill M, Miranda A, Roeyers H, Rothenberger A, Sergeant JA, Steinhausen HC, Taylor EA, Thompson M, Asherson P (2008) The influence of serotonin- and other genes on impulsive behavioral aggression and cognitive impulsivity in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): Findings from a family-based association test (FBAT) analysis. Behav Brain Funct 4:48PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. O’Brien JW, Dowell LR, Mostofsky SH, Denckla MB, Mahone EM (2010) Neuropsychological profile of executive function in girls with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Arch Clin Neuropsychol 25:656–670PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Oosterlaan J, Logan GD, Sergeant JA (1998) Response inhibition in AD/HD, CD, Comorbid AD/HD + CD, anxious, and control children: a meta-analysis of studies with the stop task. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 39:411–425PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Overmeyer S, Bullmore ET, Suckling J, Simmons A, Williams SCR, Santosh PJ, Taylor E (2001) Distributed grey and white matter deficits in hyperkinetic disorder: MRI evidence for anatomical abnormality in an attentional network. Psychol Med 31:1425–1435PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Pagoto SL, Curtin C, Bandini LG, Anderson SE, Schneider KL, Bodenlos JS, Ma Y (2010) Weight loss following a clinic-based weight loss program among adults with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms. Eat Weight Disord 15:e166–e172PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Parish-Plass J, Lufi D (1998) Combining physical activity with a behavioral approach in the treatment of young boys with behavior disorders. Small Group Res 28:357–369CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Pastor PN, Reuben CA (2008) Diagnosed attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and learning disability: United States, 2004–2006. Vital Health Stat 10:1–14Google Scholar
  146. Pelham WE Jr, Fabiano GA (2008) Evidence-based psychosocial treatments for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol 37(1):184–214PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Pelham WE, Gnagy EM, Chronis AM, Burrows-Maclean L, Fabiano GA, Onyango AN, Meichenbaum DL, Williams A, Aronoff HR, Steiner RL (1999) A comparison of morning-only and morning/late afternoon Adderall to morning-only, twice-daily, and three times-daily methylphenidate in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Pediatrics 104(6):1300–1311PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Pliszka SR, Borcherding SH, Spratley K, Leon S, Irick S (1997) Measuring inhibitory control in children. J Dev Behav Pediatr 18:254–259PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Post RM (2010) Mechanisms of illness progression in the recurrent affective disorders. Neurotox Res 18:256–271PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Ribasés M, Hervás A, Ramos-Quiroga JA, Bosch R, Bielsa A, Gastaminza X, Fernández-Anguiano M, Nogueira M, Gómez-Barros N, Valero S, Gratacòs M, Estivill X, Casas M, Cormand B, Bayés M (2008) Association study of 10 genes encoding neurotrophic factors and their receptors in adult and child attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Biol Psychiatry 63:935–945PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Rios M, Fan G, Fekete C, Kelly J, Bates B, Kuehn R, Lechan RM, Jaenisch R (2001) Conditioned deletion of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the postnatal brain leads to obesity and hyperactivity. Mol Endocrinol 15:1748–1757PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Robinson AM, Hopkins ME, Bucci DJ (2011) Effects of physical exercise on ADHD-like behavior in male and female adolescent spontaneously hypertensive rats. Dev Psychobiol. doi: 10.1002/dev.20530
  153. Rubia K (2011) “Cool” inferior frontostriatal dysfunction in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder versus “hot” ventromedial orbitofrontal-limbic dysfunction in conduct disorder: a review. Biol Psychiatry 69:e69–e87PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Russell VA (2011) Overview of animal models of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Curr Protoc Neurosci Chapter 9:Unit 9.35Google Scholar
  155. Sagvolden T, Russell VA, Aase H, Johansen EB, Farshbaf M (2005) Rodent models of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Biol Psychiatry 57:1239–1247PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Sasayama D, Hayashida A, Yamasue H, Harada Y, Kaneko T, Kasai K, Washizuka S, Amano N (2010) Neuroanatomical correlates of attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder accounting for comorbid oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder. Psychiatr Clin Neurosci 64:394–402CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Scheres A, Sumiya M, Thoeny AL (2010) Studying the relation between temporal reward discounting tasks used in populations with ADHD: a factor analysis. Int J Methods Psychiatry Res 19:167–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Schneider MF, Krick CM, Retz W, Hengesch G, Retz-Junginger P, Reith W, Rösler M (2010) Impairment of fronto-striatal and parietal cerebral networks correlates with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) psychopathology in adults—a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study. Psychiatry Res 183:75–84PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Shapiro SK, Garfinkel BD (1986) The occurence of behavior disorders in children: the interdependence of attention-disorder and conduct disorder. J Am Acad Child Psychiatry 25:809–819PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Shepard RJ (1997) Curricular physical activity and academic performance. Pediatr Exer Sci 9:113–126Google Scholar
  161. Shim SH, Hwangbo Y, Kwon YJ, Jeong HY, Lee BH, Lee HJ, Kim YK (2008) Increased levels of plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in children with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 32:1824–1828PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Shim SH, Hwangbo Y, Kwon YJ, Jeong HY, Lee BH, Hwang JA, Kim YK (2010) A case-control association study of serotonin 1A receptor gene and tryptophan hydroxylase 2 gene in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 34:974–979PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Sibley BA, Beilock SL (2007) Exercise and working memory: an individual differences investigation. J Sport Exerc Psychol 29:783–791PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. Sibley BA, Etnier JL (2003) The relationship between physical activity and cognition in children: a meta-analysis. Ped Exerc Sci 15:243–256Google Scholar
  165. Silk T, Vance A, Rinehart N, Egan G, O’Boyle M, Bradshaw JL, Cunnington R (2005) Fronto-parietal activation in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, combined type: functional magnetic resonance imaging study. Br J Psychiatry 187:282–283PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Silk TJ, Vance A, Rinehart N, Bradshaw JL, Cunnington R (2009a) Structural development of the basal ganglia in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a diffusion tensor imaging study. Psychiatry Res 172:220–225PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Silk TJ, Vance A, Rinehart N, Bradshaw JL, Cunnington R (2009b) White-matter abnormalities in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a diffusion tensor imaging study. Hum Brain Mapp 30:2757–2765PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Skirrow C, McLoughlin G, Kuntsi J, Asherson P (2009) Behavioral, neurocognitive and treatment overlap between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and mood instability. Expert Rev Neurother 9:489–503PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Skovgaard AM (2010) Mental health problems and psychopathology in infancy and early childhood. An epidemiological study. Dan Med Bull 57:B4193PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. Somerville LH, Casey BJ (2010) Developmental neurobiology of cognitive control and motivational systems. Curr Opin Neurobiol 20:236–241PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Sowell ER, Thompson PM, Welcome SE, Henkenius AL, Toga AW, Petersen BS (2003) Corticol abnormalities in children and adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Lancet 362:1699–1707PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Soya H, Nakamura T, Deocaris CC, Kimpara A, Iimura M, Fujikawa T, Chang H, McEwen BS, Nishijima T (2007) BDNF induction with mild exercise in the rat hippocampus. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 358:961–967PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Spenger C, Hyman C, Studer L, Egli M, Evtouchenko L, Jackson C, Dahl-Jørgensen A, Lindsay RM, Seiler RW (1995) Effects of BDNF on dopaminergic, serotonergic, and GABAergic neurons in cultures of human fetal ventral mesencephalon. Exp Neurol 133(1):50–63PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Sporns O, Zwi JD (2004) The small world of the cerebral cortex. Neuroinformatics 2:145–162PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Sporns O, Honey CJ, Kotter R (2007) Indentification and classification of hubs in brain networks. PLoS ONE 2:e1049. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0001049 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Steinberg L, Graham SJ, O’Brien L, Woolard J, Cauffman E, Banich M (2009) Age differences in future orientation and delay discounting. Child Dev 80:28–44PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Stevens MC, Skudlarski P, Pearlson GD, Calhoun VD (2009) Age-related cognitive gains are mediated by the effects of white matter development on brain network integration. Neuroimage 48:738–746PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Stranahan AM, Zhou Y, Martin B, Maudsley S (2009) Pharmacomimetics of exercise: novel approaches for hippocampally-targeted neuroprotective agents. Curr Med Chem 16:4668–4678PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Swensen AR, Birnbaum HG, Secnik K, Marynchenko M, Greenberg P, Claxton A (2003) Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: increased costs for parents and their families. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 42:1415–1423PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Takahashi M, Takita Y, Goto T, Ichikawa H, Saito K, Matsumoto H, Tanaka Y (2011) An open-label, dose-titration tolerability study of atomoxetine hydrochloride in Japanese adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 65:55–63PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Tannock R (2000) Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. In: Brown TE (ed) Attention-deficit disorders and comorbidities in children, adolescents, and adults. American Psychiatric Publishing, Arlington, pp 125–170Google Scholar
  182. Tantillo M, Kesick CM, Hynd GW, Dishman RK (2002) The effects of exercise on children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Med Sci Sports Exerc 34:203–212PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Taurines R, Schmitt J, Renner T, Conner AC, Warnke A, Romanos M (2010) Developmental comorbidity in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Atten Defic Hyperact Disord 2:267–289PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Teulier C, Smith BA, Kubo M, Chang CL, Moerchen V, Murazko K, Ulrich BD (2009) Stepping responses of infants with myelomeningocele when supported on a motorized treadmill. Phys Ther 89:60–72PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Tilley MR, Gu HH (2008) The effects of methylphenidate on knockin mice with a methylphenidate-resistant dopamine transporter. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 327:554–560PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Tipton CM, Matthes RD, Marcus KD, Rowlett KA, Leininger JR (1983) Influence of exercise intensity, age, and medication on resting systolic blood pressure of SHR populations. J Appl Physiol 55:1305–1310PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. Tobaiqy M, Stewart D, Helms PJ, Williams J, Crum J, Steer C, McLay J (2011) Parental reporting of adverse drug reactions associated with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medications in children attending specialist paediatric clinics in the UK. Drug Saf 34(3):211–219. doi: 10.2165/11586050-000000000-00000 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Tomasi D, Volkow ND (2011) Association between functional connectivity hubs and brain networks. Cereb Cortex. doi: 10.1093/cercor/bhq268
  189. Tomporowski PD (2003) Cognitive and behavioral responses to acute exercise in youths: a review. Pediatr Exerc Sci 15:348–359Google Scholar
  190. Tomporowski PD, Davis CL, Miller PH, Naglieri JA (2008) Exercise and children’s intelligence, cognition, and academic achievement. Educ Psychol Rev 20:111–131PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Torralva T, Gleichgerrcht E, Torrente F, Roca M, Strejilevich SA, Cetkovich M, Lischinsky A, Manes F (2011) Neuropsychological functioning in adult bipolar disorder and ADHD patients: a comparative study. Psychiatry Res 186:261–266PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. Trani MD, Casini MP, Capuzzo F, Gentile S, Bianco G, Menghini D, Vicari S (2011) Executive and intellectual functions in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder with and without comorbidity. Brain Dev 33:462–469PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Traver S, Marien M, Martin E, Hirsch EC, Michel PP (2006) The phenotypic differentiation of locus ceruleus noradrenergic neurons mediated by brain-derived neurotrophic factor is enhanced by corticotrophin releasing factor through the activation of a cAMP-dependent signaling pathway. Mol Pharmacol 70:30–40PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. Tremblay MS, Inman JW, Willms JD (2000) The relationship between physical activity, self-esteem, and academic achievement in 12-year-old children. Ped Exerc Sci 12:312–323Google Scholar
  195. Trocki-Ables P, French R, O’Connor J (2001) Use of primary and secondary reinforcers after performance of a 1 mile walk/run by boys with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Percept Mot Skills 93:461–464PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. Tsai SJ (2003) Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and brain-derived neurotrophic factor: a speculative hypothesis. Med Hypotheses 60(6):849–851PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. Tsai SJ (2007) Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder may be associated with decreased central brain-derived neurotrophic factor activity: clinical and therapeutic implications. Med Hypotheses 68(4):896–899PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. Valera EM, Faraone SV, Murray KE, Seidman LJ (2007) Meta-analysis of structural imaging findings in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Biol Psychiatr 61:1361–1369CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. Valko L, Schneider G, Doehnert M, Müller U, Brandeis D, Steinhausen HC, Drechsler R (2010) Time processing in children and adults willl ADHD. J Neural Transm 117(10):1213–1228PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. Van Leijenhorst L, Zanolie K, Van Meel CS, Westenberg PM, Rombouts SA, Crone EA (2010) What motivates the adolescent? Brain regions mediating reward sensitivity across adolescence. Cereb Cortex 20:61–69PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. Vance A, Silk TJ, Casey M, Rinehart NJ, Bradshaw JL, Bellgrove MA, Cunnington R (2007) Right parietal dysfunction in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, combined type: a functional MRI study. Mol Psychiatry 12(9):826–32, 793Google Scholar
  202. Vaynman S, Ying Z, Gomez-Pinilla F (2004) Hippocampal BDNF mediates the efficacy of exercise on synaptic plasticity and cognition. Eur J Neurosci 20:2580–2590PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. Verret C, Guay M-C, Berthiaume C, Gardiner P, Beliveau L (2010a) A physical activity program improves behavior and cognitive functions in children with ADHD: an exploratiory study. J Atten Dis. doi: 10.1177/1087054710379735
  204. Verret C, Gardiner P, Beliveau L (2010b) Fitness level and gross motor performance of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Adapt Phys Activ Q 27:337–351PubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. Volkow ND, Wang GJ, Newcorn JH, Kollins SH, Wigal TL, Telang F, Fowler JS, Goldstein RZ, Klein N, Logan J, Wong C, Swanson JM (2010) Motivation deficit in ADHD is associated with dysfunction of the dopamine reward pathwayGoogle Scholar
  206. Waxmonsky JG, Waschbusch DA, Pelham WE, Draganac-Cardona L, Rotella B, Ryan L (2010) Effects of atomoxetine with and without behavior therapy on the school and home functioning of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J Clin Psychiatry 71:1535–1551PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. Wendt MS (2000) The effect of an activity program designed with intense physical exercise on the behavior of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (Doctoral Dissertation, State University of New York). Dissertation abstract international, vol 61, p 114Google Scholar
  208. Winter B, Breitenstein C, Mooren FC, Voelker K, Fobker M, Lechtermann A, Krueger K, Fromme A, Korsukewitz C, Floel A, Knecht S (2007) High impact running improves learning. Neurobiol Learn Mem 87:597–609PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. Xu X, Mill J, Zhou K, Brookes K, Chen CK, Asherson (2007) Family-based association study between brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene polymorphisms and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in UK and Taiwanese samples. Am J Med Genet B 144:83–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. Zheng H, Liu Y, Li W, Yang B, Chen D, Wang X, Jiang Z, Wang H, Wang Z, Cornelisson G, Halberg F (2006) Beneficial effects of exercise and its molecular mechanisms on depression in rats. Behav Brain Res 168:47–55PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. Zoladz JA, Pilc A (2010) The effect of physical activity on the brain derived neurotrophic factor: from animal to human studies. J Physiol Pharmacol l61:533–541Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of GothenburgGothenburgSweden
  2. 2.Department of EducationPsychology and Sports Science, Linné University Kalmar VäxjöKalmarSweden
  3. 3.Department of PharmacologyQuillen College of Medicine, East Tennessee State UniversityJohnson CityUSA

Personalised recommendations