Decision-Making, Behavioral Supervision and Learning: An Executive Role for the Ventral Premotor Cortex?
- 163 Downloads
In order to adjust the behavioral performance in a changing environment, subjects have to monitor their evolving actions and to know whether their responses were correct or incorrect. This requires self-awareness, cognitive flexibility, working memory (WM), and decision making that frequently are impaired in psychosis. What is the neural substrate of these processes and where are these substrates located? Dysfunction of prefrontal, parietal, temporal cortices, and associated subcortical structures are known to be involved in some of these symptoms. The prefrontal–subcortical circuits have been the main focus of study while other cortical areas such as the premotor cortex have received less attention. The main focus of this review is about the evidence that the ventral premotor cortex processes both recent sensory information and that from long-term memory to decide and evaluate the behavior of previous decisions. This process may serve for learning and thus adapting future behavior to environmental demands. Therefore, dysfunction of this cortical area could be related to some cognitive neuropsychiatric disorders.
KeywordsVentral premotor cortex Primates Single cell activity Decision-making Working memory Outcomes
This study is supported by Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (MICINN) and Innovación, Ciencia e Tecnoloxía (INCITE)-Xunta de Galicia (Spain) grants to CA. The research studies of JL P-V and VL are supported by post-doc INCITE-Xunta de Galicia, and by pre-doc MICINN grants, respectively.
- Amador XF, David AS (1998) Insight and psychosis. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Amador X, Kronengold H (2004) Understanding and assessing insight and psychosis: awareness of illness in schizophrenia and related disorders. Oxford University Press, New York, NY, pp 3–30Google Scholar
- American-Psychiatric-Association (2000) Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders DSM-IV-TR. American Psychiatric Association, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
- Baddeley AD, Hitch G (1974) Working memory. In: Bower GH (ed) The psychology of learning and motivation: advances in research and theory. Academic Press, New York, pp 47–89Google Scholar
- Britten KH, Newsome WT, Shadlen MN, Celebrini S, Movshon JA (1996) A relationship between behavioral choice and the visual responses of neurons in macaque MT. Vis Res 13(1):87–100Google Scholar
- Critchley M (1953) The parietal lobes. Edward Arnold and Co., LondonGoogle Scholar
- Draper NR, Smith H (1966) Applied regression analysis. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Fuster JM (1989) The prefrontal cortex. Raven Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Fuster JM (1995) Memory in the cerebral cortex. The MIT Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
- Fuster J (1997) The prefrontal cortex: anatomy, physiology, and neuropsychology of the prefrontal lobe. Lippincott-Raven, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
- Green DM, Swets JA (1966) Signal detection theory and psychophysics. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Teuber HL (1964) The riddle of frontal lobe function in man. In: Warren JM, Akert K (eds) The frontal granular cortex and behavior. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Ungerleider LG, Mishkin M (1982) Two cortical visual systems. In: Ingle DJ, Goodale MA, Mansfield JW (eds) Analysis of visual behavior. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, pp 549–586Google Scholar