Neurotoxicity Research

, Volume 18, Issue 3–4, pp 416–427 | Cite as

Decision-Making, Behavioral Supervision and Learning: An Executive Role for the Ventral Premotor Cortex?

  • C. AcuñaEmail author
  • J. L. Pardo-Vázquez
  • V. Leborán


In order to adjust the behavioral performance in a changing environment, subjects have to monitor their evolving actions and to know whether their responses were correct or incorrect. This requires self-awareness, cognitive flexibility, working memory (WM), and decision making that frequently are impaired in psychosis. What is the neural substrate of these processes and where are these substrates located? Dysfunction of prefrontal, parietal, temporal cortices, and associated subcortical structures are known to be involved in some of these symptoms. The prefrontal–subcortical circuits have been the main focus of study while other cortical areas such as the premotor cortex have received less attention. The main focus of this review is about the evidence that the ventral premotor cortex processes both recent sensory information and that from long-term memory to decide and evaluate the behavior of previous decisions. This process may serve for learning and thus adapting future behavior to environmental demands. Therefore, dysfunction of this cortical area could be related to some cognitive neuropsychiatric disorders.


Ventral premotor cortex Primates Single cell activity Decision-making Working memory Outcomes 



This study is supported by Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (MICINN) and Innovación, Ciencia e Tecnoloxía (INCITE)-Xunta de Galicia (Spain) grants to CA. The research studies of JL P-V and VL are supported by post-doc INCITE-Xunta de Galicia, and by pre-doc MICINN grants, respectively.


  1. Aizawa H, Inase M, Mushiake H, Shima K, Tanji J (1991) Reorganization of activity in the supplementary motor area associated with motor learning and functional recovery. Exp Brain Res 84(3):668–671PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Amador XF, David AS (1998) Insight and psychosis. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  3. Amador X, Kronengold H (2004) Understanding and assessing insight and psychosis: awareness of illness in schizophrenia and related disorders. Oxford University Press, New York, NY, pp 3–30Google Scholar
  4. Amador XF, Strauss DH, Yale SA, Gorman JM (1991) Awareness of illness in schizophrenia. Schizophr Bull 17(1):113–132PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. American-Psychiatric-Association (2000) Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders DSM-IV-TR. American Psychiatric Association, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  6. Andreasen NC, O’Leary DS, Cizadlo T, Arndt S, Rezai K, Ponto LL et al (1996) Schizophrenia and cognitive dysmetria: a positron-emission tomography study of dysfunctional prefrontal-thalamic-cerebellar circuitry. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 93(18):9985–9990PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Apicella P, Ljungberg T, Scarnati E, Schultz W (1991) Responses to reward in monkey dorsal and ventral striatum. Exp Brain Res 85(3):491–500PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Baddeley AD, Hitch G (1974) Working memory. In: Bower GH (ed) The psychology of learning and motivation: advances in research and theory. Academic Press, New York, pp 47–89Google Scholar
  9. Barraclough DJ, Conroy ML, Lee D (2004) Prefrontal cortex and decision making in a mixed-strategy game. Nat Neurosci 7(4):404–410PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Borra E, Belmalih A, Calzavara R, Gerbella M, Murata A, Rozzi S et al (2008) Cortical connections of the macaque anterior intraparietal (AIP) area. Cereb Cortex 18(5):1094–1111PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Botvinick MM, Cohen JD, Carter CS (2004) Conflict monitoring and anterior cingulate cortex: an update. Trends Cogn Sci 8(12):539–546PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Boussaoud D, Ungerleider LG, Desimone R (1990) Pathways for motion analysis: cortical connections of the medial superior temporal and fundus of the superior temporal visual areas in the macaque. J Comp Neurol 296(3):462–495PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Boussaoud D, Tanne-Gariepy J, Wannier T, Rouiller EM (2005) Callosal connections of dorsal versus ventral premotor areas in the macaque monkey: a multiple retrograde tracing study. BMC Neurosci 6:67PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Britten KH, Newsome WT, Shadlen MN, Celebrini S, Movshon JA (1996) A relationship between behavioral choice and the visual responses of neurons in macaque MT. Vis Res 13(1):87–100Google Scholar
  15. Brody CD, Romo R, Kepecs A (2003) Basic mechanisms for graded persistent activity: discrete attractors, continuous attractors, and dynamic representations. Curr Opin Neurobiol 13(2):204–211PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Carpenter WT (2007) Deconstructing and reconstructing illness syndromes associated with psychosis. World Psychiatry 6(2):92–93PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Carpenter WT Jr, Strauss JS, Bartko JJ (1973) Flexible system for the diagnosis of schizophrenia: report from the WHO international pilot study of schizophrenia. Science 182(118):1275–1278PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Carpenter AF, Georgopoulos AP, Pellizzer G (1999) Motor cortical encoding of serial order in a context-recall task. Science 283(5408):1752–1757PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Clower DM, Hoffman JM, Votaw JR, Faber TL, Woods RP, Alexander GE (1996) Role of posterior parietal cortex in the recalibration of visually guided reaching. Nature 383(6601):618–621PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Critchley M (1953) The parietal lobes. Edward Arnold and Co., LondonGoogle Scholar
  21. Crowe DA, Chafee MV, Averbeck BB, Georgopoulos AP (2004) Participation of primary motor cortical neurons in a distributed network during maze solution: representation of spatial parameters and time-course comparison with parietal area 7a. Exp Brain Res 158(1):28–34PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Dancause N, Barbay S, Frost SB, Plautz EJ, Popescu M, Dixon PM et al (2006a) Topographically divergent and convergent connectivity between premotor and primary motor cortex. Cereb Cortex 16(8):1057–1068PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Dancause N, Barbay S, Frost SB, Plautz EJ, Stowe AM, Friel KM et al (2006b) Ipsilateral connections of the ventral premotor cortex in a new world primate. J Comp Neurol 495(4):374–390PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. de Lafuente V, Romo R (2006) Neural correlate of subjective sensory experience gradually builds up across cortical areas. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 103(39):14266–14271PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Desimone R, Ungerleider LG (1986) Multiple visual areas in the caudal superior temporal sulcus of the macaque. J Comp Neurol 248(2):164–189PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Draper NR, Smith H (1966) Applied regression analysis. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  27. Drevets WC (2007) Orbitofrontal cortex function and structure in depression. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1121:499–527PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Dum RP, Strick PL (2002) Motor areas in the frontal lobe of the primate. Physiol Behav 77(4–5):677–682PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Ehrsson HH, Spence C, Passingham RE (2004) That’s my hand! Activity in premotor cortex reflects feeling of ownership of a limb. Science 305(5685):875–877PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Falkenstein M, Hohnsbein J, Hoormann J, Blanke L (1991) Effects of crossmodal divided attention on late ERP components. II. Error processing in choice reaction tasks. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 78(6):447–455PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Floresco SB, Magyar O, Ghods-Sharifi S, Vexelman C, Tse MT (2006) Multiple dopamine receptor subtypes in the medial prefrontal cortex of the rat regulate set-shifting. Neuropsychopharmacology 31(2):297–309PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Fogassi L, Gallese V, Buccino G, Craighero L, Fadiga L, Rizzolatti G (2001) Cortical mechanism for the visual guidance of hand grasping movements in the monkey: a reversible inactivation study. Brain 124(Pt 3):571–586PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Frank MJ, Loughry B, O’Reilly RC (2001) Interactions between frontal cortex and basal ganglia in working memory: a computational model. Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci 1(2):137–160PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Fuster JM (1989) The prefrontal cortex. Raven Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  35. Fuster JM (1995) Memory in the cerebral cortex. The MIT Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  36. Fuster J (1997) The prefrontal cortex: anatomy, physiology, and neuropsychology of the prefrontal lobe. Lippincott-Raven, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  37. Fuster JM, Alexander GE (1971) Neuron activity related to short-term memory. Science 173(997):652–654PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Gentilucci M, Fogassi L, Luppino G, Matelli M, Camarda R, Rizzolatti G (1988) Functional organization of inferior area 6 in the macaque monkey. I. Somatotopy and the control of proximal movements. Exp Brain Res 71(3):475–490PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Georgopoulos AP, Lurito JT, Petrides M, Schwartz AB, Massey JT (1989) Mental rotation of the neuronal population vector. Science 243(4888):234–236PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Ghosh S, Gattera R (1995) A comparison of the ipsilateral cortical projections to the dorsal and ventral subdivisions of the macaque premotor cortex. Somatosens Mot Res 12(3–4):359–378PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Godschalk M, Lemon RN, Kuypers HG, Ronday HK (1984) Cortical afferents and efferents of monkey postarcuate area: an anatomical and electrophysiological study. Exp Brain Res 56(3):410–424PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Gold JI, Shadlen MN (2007) The neural basis of decision making. Annu Rev Neurosci 30(1):535–574PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Goodale MA, Milner AD (1992) Separate visual pathways for perception and action. Trends Neurosci 15(1):20–25PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Grafton ST, Mazziotta JC, Presty S, Friston KJ, Frackowiak RS, Phelps ME (1992) Functional anatomy of human procedural learning determined with regional cerebral blood flow and PET. J Neurosci 12(7):2542–2548PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Graziano MS (1999) Where is my arm? The relative role of vision and proprioception in the neuronal representation of limb position. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 96(18):10418–10421PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Graziano MS, Yap GS, Gross CG (1994) Coding of visual space by premotor neurons. Science 266(5187):1054–1057PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Green DM, Swets JA (1966) Signal detection theory and psychophysics. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  48. Halsband U, Freund HJ (1990) Premotor cortex and conditional motor learning in man. Brain 113(Pt 1):207–222PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Hauk O, Johnsrude I, Pulvermuller F (2004) Somatotopic representation of action words in human motor and premotor cortex. Neuron 41(2):301–307PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Hernandez A, Zainos A, Romo R (2002) Temporal evolution of a decision-making process in medial premotor cortex. Neuron 33(6):959–972PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Histed MH, Pasupathy A, Miller EK (2009) Learning substrates in the primate prefrontal cortex and striatum: sustained activity related to successful actions. Neuron 63(2):244–253PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Holroyd CB, Coles MG (2002) The neural basis of human error processing: reinforcement learning, dopamine, and the error-related negativity. Psychol Rev 109(4):679–709PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Hoover JE, Strick PL (1993) Multiple output channels in the basal ganglia. Science 259(5096):819–821PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Hoover JE, Strick PL (1999) The organization of cerebellar and basal ganglia outputs to primary motor cortex as revealed by retrograde transneuronal transport of herpes simplex virus type 1. J Neurosci 19(4):1446–1463PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Hubel DH, Wiesel TN (1968) Receptive fields and functional architecture of monkey striate cortex. J Physiol 195:215–243PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Ito M, Doya K (2009) Validation of decision-making models and analysis of decision variables in the rat basal ganglia. J Neurosci 29(31):9861–9874PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Ito S, Stuphorn V, Brown JW, Schall JD (2003) Performance monitoring by the anterior cingulate cortex during saccade countermanding. Science 302(5642):120–122PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Jeannerod M, Arbib MA, Rizzolatti G, Sakata H (1995) Grasping objects: the cortical mechanisms of visuomotor transformation. Trends Neurosci 18(7):314–320PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Kelly RM, Strick PL (2003) Cerebellar loops with motor cortex and prefrontal cortex of a nonhuman primate. J Neurosci 23(23):8432–8444PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Kerns JG, Cohen JD, MacDonald AW III, Cho RY, Stenger VA, Carter CS (2004) Anterior cingulate conflict monitoring and adjustments in control. Science 303(5660):1023–1026PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Kim H, Lee D, Shin YM, Chey J (2007a) Impaired strategic decision making in schizophrenia. Brain Res 1180:90–100PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Kim YB, Huh N, Lee H, Baeg EH, Lee D, Jung MW (2007b) Encoding of action history in the rat ventral striatum. J Neurophysiol 98(6):3548–3556PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Koechlin E, Ody C, Kouneiher F (2003) The architecture of cognitive control in the human prefrontal cortex. Science 302(5648):1181–1185PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Lamotte RH, Acuña C (1978) Defects in accuracy of reaching after removal of posterior parietal cortex in monkeys. Brain Res 139(2):309–326PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Lau B, Glimcher PW (2007) Action and outcome encoding in the primate caudate nucleus. J Neurosci 27(52):14502–14514PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Lebedev MA, Wise SP (2002) Insights into seeing and grasping: distinguishing the neural correlates of perception and action. Behav Cogn Neurosci Rev 1(2):108–129PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Lee D (2006) Neural basis of quasi-rational decision making. Curr Opin Neurobiol 16(2):191–198PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Lee JH, van Donkelaar P (2006) The human dorsal premotor cortex generates on-line error corrections during sensorimotor adaptation. J Neurosci 26(12):3330–3334PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Lu MT, Preston JB, Strick PL (1994) Interconnections between the prefrontal cortex and the premotor areas in the frontal lobe. J Comp Neurol 341(3):375–392PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Luk CH, Wallis JD (2009) Dynamic encoding of responses and outcomes by neurons in medial prefrontal cortex. J Neurosci 29(23):7526–7539PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Luppino G, Murata A, Govoni P, Matelli M (1999) Largely segregated parietofrontal connections linking rostral intraparietal cortex (areas AIP and VIP) and the ventral premotor cortex (areas F5 and F4). Exp Brain Res 128(1–2):181–187PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Markowitsch HJ, Irle E, Emmans D (1987) Cortical and subcortical afferent connections of the squirrel monkey’s (lateral) premotor cortex: evidence for visual cortical afferents. Int J Neurosci 37(3–4):127–148PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Matelli M, Camarda R, Glickstein M, Rizzolatti G (1986) Afferent and efferent projections of the inferior area 6 in the macaque monkey. J Comp Neurol 251(3):281–298PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Matsumoto M, Matsumoto K, Abe H, Tanaka K (2007) Medial prefrontal cell activity signaling prediction errors of action values. Nat Neurosci 10(5):647–656PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Maunsell JH, van Essen DC (1983) The connections of the middle temporal visual area (MT) and their relationship to a cortical hierarchy in the macaque monkey. J Neurosci 3(12):2563–2586PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Meyer-Lindenberg A, Miletich RS, Kohn PD, Esposito G, Carson RE, Quarantelli M et al (2002) Reduced prefrontal activity predicts exaggerated striatal dopaminergic function in schizophrenia. Nat Neurosci 5(3):267–271PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Miller P, Brody CD, Romo R, Wang XJ (2003) A recurrent network model of somatosensory parametric working memory in the prefrontal cortex. Cereb Cortex 13(11):1208–1218PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Mountcastle VB, Lynch JC, Georgopoulos A, Sakata H, Acuña C (1975) Posterior parietal association cortex of the monkey: command functions for operations within extrapersonal space. J Neurophysiol 38(4):871–908PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Murata A, Gallese V, Luppino G, Kaseda M, Sakata H (2000) Selectivity for the shape, size, and orientation of objects for grasping in neurons of monkey parietal area AIP. J Neurophysiol 83(5):2580–2601PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Nacher V, Ojeda S, Cadarso-Suarez C, Roca-Pardinas J, Acuña C (2006) Neural correlates of memory retrieval in the prefrontal cortex. Eur J Neurosci 24(3):925–936PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Narayanan NS, Laubach M (2008) Neuronal correlates of post-error slowing in the rat dorsomedial prefrontal cortex. J Neurophysiol 100(1):520–525PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Palmer J, Huk AC, Shadlen MN (2005) The effect of stimulus strength on the speed and accuracy of a perceptual decision. J Vis 5(5):376–404PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Pandya DN, Yeterian EH (1990) Prefrontal cortex in relation to other cortical areas in rhesus monkey: architecture and connections. Prog Brain Res 85:63–94PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Pardo-Vazquez JL, Leboran V, Acuña C (2008) Neural correlates of decisions and their outcomes in the ventral premotor cortex. J Neurosci 28(47):12396–12408PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Pardo-Vazquez JL, Leboran V, Acuña C (2009) A role for the ventral premotor cortex beyond performance monitoring. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 106(44):18815–18819PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Passingham RE (1989) Premotor cortex and the retrieval of movement. Brain Behav Evol 33(2–3):189–192PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Paulus MP (2007) Decision-making dysfunctions in psychiatry altered homeostatic processing? Science 318(5850):602–606PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Petrides M (1986) The effect of periarcuate lesions in the monkey on the performance of symmetrically and asymmetrically reinforced visual and auditory go, no-go tasks. J Neurosci 6(7):2054–2063PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Quilodran R, Rothe M, Procyk E (2008) Behavioral shifts and action valuation in the anterior cingulate cortex. Neuron 57(2):314–325PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Raos V, Umilta MA, Murata A, Fogassi L, Gallese V (2006) Functional properties of grasping-related neurons in the ventral premotor area F5 of the macaque monkey. J Neurophysiol 95(2):709–729PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Ridderinkhof KR, van den Wildenberg WPM (2005) Adaptive coding. Science 307(5712):1059–1060PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Ridderinkhof KR, Ullsperger M, Crone EA, Nieuwenhuis S (2004) The role of the medial frontal cortex in cognitive control. Science 306(5695):443–447PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Rizzolatti G, Craighero L (2004) The mirror-neuron system. Annu Rev Neurosci 27:169–192PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Rizzolatti G, Luppino G (2001) The cortical motor system. Neuron 31(6):889–901PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Roesch MR, Olson CR (2005) Neuronal activity in primate orbitofrontal cortex reflects the value of time. J Neurophysiol 94(4):2457–2471PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Romo R, Salinas E (2003) Flutter discrimination: neural codes, perception, memory and decision making. Nat Rev Neurosci 4(3):203–218PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Romo R, Hernandez A, Salinas E, Brody C, Zainos A, Lemus L et al (2002) From sensation to action. Behav Brain Res 135(1–2):105PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Romo R, Hernandez A, Zainos A (2004) Neuronal correlates of a perceptual decision in ventral premotor cortex. Neuron 41(1):165–173PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Rouiller EM, Tanne J, Moret V, Boussaoud D (1999) Origin of thalamic inputs to the primary, premotor, and supplementary motor cortical areas and to area 46 in macaque monkeys: a multiple retrograde tracing study. J Comp Neurol 409(1):131–152PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Rudebeck PH, Behrens TE, Kennerley SW, Baxter MG, Buckley MJ, Walton ME et al (2008) Frontal cortex subregions play distinct roles in choices between actions and stimuli. J Neurosci 28(51):13775–13785PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Sakata H, Taira M, Murata A, Mine S (1995) Neural mechanisms of visual guidance of hand action in the parietal cortex of the monkey. Cereb Cortex 5(5):429–438PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Schell GR, Strick PL (1984) The origin of thalamic inputs to the arcuate premotor and supplementary motor areas. J Neurosci 4(2):539–560PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Schluter ND, Rushworth MF, Passingham RE, Mills KR (1998) Temporary interference in human lateral premotor cortex suggests dominance for the selection of movements. A study using transcranial magnetic stimulation. Brain 121(Pt 5):785–799PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Schwartz AB, Moran DW, Reina GA (2004) Differential representation of perception and action in the frontal cortex. Science 303(5656):380–383PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Seo H, Lee D (2009) Behavioral and neural changes after gains and losses of conditioned reinforcers. J Neurosci 29(11):3627–3641PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Seo H, Barraclough DJ, Lee D (2007) Dynamic signals related to choices and outcomes in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Cereb Cortex 17(Suppl 1):i110–i117PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Shadlen MN, Newsome WT (2001) Neural basis of a perceptual decision in the parietal cortex (area LIP) of the rhesus monkey. J Neurophysiol 86(4):1916–1936PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Shadlen MN, Britten KH, Newsome WT, Movshon JA (1996) A computational analysis of the relationship between neuronal and behavioral responses to visual motion. J Neurosci 16(4):1486–1510PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Shallice T (1988) From neuropsychology to mental structure. Cambridge University Press, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Smith EE, Jonides J (1999) Storage and executive processes in the frontal lobes. Science 283(5408):1657–1661PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Stuphorn V, Taylor TL, Schall JD (2000) Performance monitoring by the supplementary eye field. Nature 408(6814):857–860PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Teuber HL (1964) The riddle of frontal lobe function in man. In: Warren JM, Akert K (eds) The frontal granular cortex and behavior. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  113. Turner DC, Aitken MR, Shanks DR, Sahakian BJ, Robbins TW, Schwarzbauer C et al (2004) The role of the lateral frontal cortex in causal associative learning: exploring preventative and super-learning. Cereb Cortex 14(8):872–880PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Uchida Y, Lu X, Ohmae S, Takahashi T, Kitazawa S (2007) Neuronal activity related to reward size and rewarded target position in primate supplementary eye field. J Neurosci 27(50):13750–13755PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Ungerleider LG, Mishkin M (1982) Two cortical visual systems. In: Ingle DJ, Goodale MA, Mansfield JW (eds) Analysis of visual behavior. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, pp 549–586Google Scholar
  116. van den Bos E, Jeannerod M (2002) Sense of body and sense of action both contribute to self-recognition. Cognition 85(2):177–187PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Vazquez P, Cano M, Acuña C (2000) Discrimination of line orientation in humans and monkeys. J Neurophysiol 83(5):2639–2648PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Watanabe M (1996) Reward expectancy in primate prefrontal neurons. Nature 382(6592):629–632PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Webster MJ, Bachevalier J, Ungerleider LG (1994) Connections of inferior temporal areas TEO and TE with parietal and frontal cortex in macaque monkeys. Cereb Cortex 4(5):470–483PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Wirth S, Avsar E, Chiu CC, Sharma V, Smith AC, Brown E et al (2009) Trial outcome and associative learning signals in the monkey hippocampus. Neuron 61(6):930–940PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Wise SP (2006) The ventral premotor cortex, corticospinal region C, and the origin of primates. Cortex 42(4):521–524PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Wise SP, di Pellegrino G, Boussaoud D (1992) Primate premotor cortex: dissociation of visuomotor from sensory signals. J Neurophysiol 68(3):969–972PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laboratorios de Neurociencia, Departamento de Fisiología, Facultad de Medicina and Complejo Hospitalario UniversitarioUniversidad de Santiago de CompostelaSantiago de CompostelaSpain

Personalised recommendations