In vitro acaricidal effect of Melia azedarach and Artemisia herba-alba extracts on Hyalomma dromedarii (Acari: Ixodidae): embryonated eggs and engorged nymphs
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The present study aimed to evaluate the in vitro efficacy of four medicinal plant extracts: petroleum ether and ethyl alcohol extracts of the ripen fruits of Melia azedarach and whole aerial parts of Artemisia herba-alba against the two inactive stages of the camel tick Hyalomma dromedarii, embryonated eggs and engorged nymphs in comparison to reference acaricide Butox®5.0 (Deltamethrin). Egg and nymphal immersion tests at four concentrations with three replicates were used. The deformity in larvae hatched from treated eggs and adults moulted from treated nymphs were observed and photographed by light microscope (LM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results showed that M. azedarach and A. herba-alba extracts revealed higher significant toxic effects on embryonated eggs and engorged nymphs comparing with the reference acaricide (Butox®5.0) and control. In egg emmersion test, the LC50 of petroleum ether extracts of M. azedarach and A. herba-alba was 3.14 and 3.91%, respectively and LC50 of the respective ethyl alcohol extracts was 1.77 and 2.45%. In nymphal immersion test, LC50 of petroleum ether extracts of M. azedarach and A. herba-alba was 0.26 and 1%, respectively, and LC50 of the respective ethyl alcohol extracts was 4.17 and 8.7%. Abnormalities were observed by LM and SEM in the larvae hatched from the treated eggs as incomplete development of legs and mouth parts as well as shrinkage mainly in legs and mouthparts of adults emerged from treated nymphs. In conclusion, all extracts and petroleum ether extracts of the two plants have great potential to be developed as a novel acaricidal for controlling eggs and nymphs of H. dromedarii, respectively.
KeywordsHyalomma dromedarii Acaricidal activity Tick Control Melia azedarach Artemisia herba-alba
This study is a part of a Ph.D. Thesis to be submitted to The Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University. The study was carried out by financial support of National Research Centre as a part of Ph.D. Thesis No. 12/2/19.
MMF, SA, MMA, RME, and HSMA designed the experiments. EMH and HSMA participated in the preparation of the plant extracts. MMF, SA, MMA, RME, and HSMA shared in the following protocols: bioassay of plant extracts against both embryonated eggs and engorged nymphs, detection of abnormalities in treated tick specimens by light microscope and scanning electron microscopy. SA and HSMA analysed and tabulated the data. MMF, SA, MMA, and HSMA wrote the draft of the manuscript. All authors revised and approved the final version of the manuscript.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.
This study was approved by Ethical Committee for Medical Research (MREC) at the National Research Centre (NRC), Egypt in accordance with local laws and regulations (Approval Protocol No. 19085).
Consent was obtained from the owners of camels included in this study.
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