Journal of Parasitic Diseases

, Volume 43, Issue 4, pp 607–615 | Cite as

Protozoan and helminthes parasites endorsed by imported camels (Camel dromedaries) to Egypt

  • Khaled A. S. El-Khabaz
  • Sara S. Abdel-HakeemEmail author
  • Mohsen I. Arfa
Original Article


The prevalence and species spectrum of some blood and intestinal parasites affecting imported camels was studied on a total of 120 clinically suspected camels (males) imported to Egypt from Sudan during the period from January till July 2016 in Abu-Simbel quarantine station, Aswan governorate. Blood and fecal samples were collected from all camels under the study. The fecal samples were collected and examined by sedimentation–floatation techniques for detection of parasitic eggs/oocysts. Coprological examination revealed that the prevalence rate of the parasitic infection was 60% (72 out of 120). Eighteen species of helminthes/protozoan parasites eggs/oocysts were encountered stongyles species were the hightest prevalent of nematodes 12.5%. Four genera of flat worms were identified in the present study including Paramphistomum sp. 0.8%, Fasciola sp. 3.3%, Moniezia sp. 7.5% and Dicrocoelim sp. 0.8%. Four species of Eimeria were identified (E. cameli, E. dromedarii, E. rajasthaniand E. pellerdyi) in infected camels the commenst one is E. cameli 15.8%, Cryptospridium sp. and Balatidium coli were recorded with a prevalence rate about 15.8%, 8.3% and 6.7% respectively. Blood smears from jugular vein revealed that 2.5% of camels were infected with Dipetalonema evansi. Wide spectrum and high prevalence of internal parasites were observed in the present study which may be lead to severe economic losses, so the application of control measures and treatment of infected camels with specific and effective drugs during the quarantine period are most important to prevent spreading of parasitic infestation and/or introduction of parasites previously not exist in our country.


Camels Parasites Blood Protozoan Helminthes 


Authors’ contribution

Khaled A. Sayed El-Khabaz designed and coordinated the study, shared in sampling and revision the manuscript. Sara S. Abdel-Hakeem assisted in work, manuscript writing and data analysis, Mohsen I. Arfa helped in data analysis and reviewing the final manuscript. All authors discussed the results, commented on the manuscript and gave final approval of the final version to be submitted. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in studies involving animals were in accordance with the ethical standards of the Egyptian laws and University guidelines for the care of experimental animals. The protocols of the current experiment were approved by the Committee of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine of Assiut University, Egypt.


  1. Abd El-Salam JM, Farah MA (1988) Seasonal variations of gastrointestinal helminths of camel in Kuwait. Vet Parasitol 28:93–102Google Scholar
  2. Abdalla MI, Ahmed AHK, Abdulkarim AY (2016) Gastro-Intestinal Parasites of Camels (Camelus dromedarius) from Mogadishu, Somalia. Open J Vet Med 6:112–118. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Abdel-Aziz AA (1996) Studies of some diseases of exotic camels. Faculty of Vet. Med. Egypt, Cairo University. M. V. Sc. ThesisGoogle Scholar
  4. Abdel-Rady Ahmed (2014) Epidemiological studies on parasitic infestations in camels (Camelus dromedaries) in EGYPT. Eur J Environ Ecol 1(1):16–20Google Scholar
  5. Abou El-Naga TR, Barghash SM (2016) Blood parasites in camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Northern West Coast of Egypt. J Bacteriol Parasitol 7(7):1–7. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Ahmad S, Butt AA, Muhammad G, Athar M, Khan MZ (2004) Haematobiochemical studies on the haemoparasitized camels. Int J Agric Biol 6:331–334Google Scholar
  7. Ali E (2003) Study on the prevalence and pathology of Fasciola in camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Iran. J Vet Res 58(2):97–100Google Scholar
  8. Al-Megrin WAI (2015) Prevalence rate of intestinal parasites in Camels in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Int J Zool Res 11(2):65–70Google Scholar
  9. Altayib Omer (2014) Zoonotic balantidiasis in camel from Saudi Arabia. Sch Acad J Biosci 2(7):445–447Google Scholar
  10. Bamaiyi PH, Kalu AU (2011) Gastrointestinal parasites infection in one-humped camels (Camelus dromedarius) of Nigeria. Vet Res Forum 2(4):278–281Google Scholar
  11. Bekele T (2002) Epidemiological studies on gastrointestinal helminths of dromedary (Camelus dromedarius) in semi-arid lands of eastern Ethiopia. Vet Parasitol 105:139–152PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Biu AA, Abbagana A (2007) Prevalence of paramphistomes in camels slaughtered at Maiduguri, Nigeria. Nigerian J Parasitol 28(1):44–46Google Scholar
  13. Boid R, Jones TW, Luckins AG (1985) Protozoal diseases of camels. Brit Vet J 141:87–105Google Scholar
  14. Borji H, Razmi G, Movassaghi AR, Naghibi AG, Maleki M (2010) A study on gastrointestinal helminths of camels in Mashhad abattoir Iran. Iran J Vet Res 11(2):174–179Google Scholar
  15. Bradford P (2002) Large animal internal medicine. In: Veterinary medicineGoogle Scholar
  16. Cebra CK, Valentine BA, Schlipf JW Jr (2007) Eimeria macusaniensis infection in 15 llamas and 34 alpacas. J Am Vet Med Assoc 230:94–100PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Dakkak A, Ohelli H (1987) Helminths and helminthoses of the dromedary. A review of the literature. Sci Tech Rev Off Int Epizoot 6(1):447–461Google Scholar
  18. Demelash Kasahun, Alemu Fikadu, Niguse Ayalew, Feyera Teka (2014) Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites and efficacy of anthelmintics against nematodes in camels in Yabello District, Southern Ethiopia. Acta Parasitol Glob 5(3):223–231. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Djerbouh A, Lafri I, Kechemir-Issad N, Bitam I (2018) Endo- and ectoparasites (Ixodidae) of camels (Camelus dromedarius) from Southern Algeria. Livest Res Rural Dev 30(8). Retrieved 25 June 2019, from
  20. Dubey Jitender P, Schuster Rolf K, Kinne Joerg (2018) Gametogony of Eimeria cameli in the small intestine of one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius). Parasitol Res 117:3633–3638PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Duguma Ararsa, Eshetu Eyoub, Gelan Eyob (2014) Prilimiary study on the prevalence and risk factors associated with gasrtointestinal parasites of camel in Yabello district, Southern ranelans of Ethiopia. Afr J Agric Res 9(43):3191–3196Google Scholar
  22. El-badr AM, Essa MT, Metwally A, Taher A (2010) Studies on coccidiosis of camel in Assiut Governate. Minufiya Vet J 7(1):161–164Google Scholar
  23. El-Manyawe, Iskander AR (1994) A study of the gastrointestinal parasites of camels in Egypt. J Egypt Vet Med Assoc 54(1):225–230Google Scholar
  24. Fowler ME (1996) Husbandry and diseases of camelids. Sci Tech Rev Off Int Epizoot 15(1):155–169PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Ghandour AM, Tahir MO, Shalaby IM (1989) A comparative study of the prevalence of some parasites in animals slaughtered in Jeddah abattoir. J King Abdulaziz 1:87–94Google Scholar
  26. Henriksen SA, Pohlenz JFL (1981) Staining of Cryptosporodia by modified Ziehl–Neelsen technique: a brief communication. Acta Vet Scand 25:322–326Google Scholar
  27. Hussein HS, Kasim AA, Shawa YR (1987) The prevalence and pathology of Eimeria infections in camels in Saudi Arabia. J Comp Pathol 97:293–297PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Javad T, Nourollahi SR, Paidar A, Anousheh S, Dehghani E (2013) Balantidiasis in a dromedarian camel. Asian Pac J Trop Dis 3:409–412Google Scholar
  29. Kamani J, Turaki AU, Egwu GO, Mani AU, Kida SM, Abdullahi JG, Damina MS, Kumshe HA, Dongo GI (2008) Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in Camels (Camelus dromedarius) Slaughtered in Maiduguri, Nigeria. J Camel Pract Res (Middle East) 15(2):181–182Google Scholar
  30. Karawan AC (2017) Diagnostic study of internal parasites in camels of Al- diwaniya government. Kufa J Vet Med Sci 8(1):64–71Google Scholar
  31. Keyyu JD, Kassuku AA, Kyvsgaard NC, Willingham AL (2003) Gastrointestinal nematodes in indigenous zebu cattle under pastoral and nomadic management systems in the lower plain of Southern highlands of Tanzania. Vet Res Commun 27(5):371–380PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Mahmoud MA, Amin MM, Youssef RR, El-Kattan A, Goda ASA, Abou El-Naga TR (2008) Studies on some endoparasites of camels in the Southeastern area of Egypt. SCVMJ XIII:81–92Google Scholar
  33. Mahran OM (1989) Some studies on blood parasites in camels (Camelus dromedarius) at Shalatin City, Red Sea Governorate. J Eukaryot Microbiol 36:422–423Google Scholar
  34. Max RA (2006) Technical manual for worm management in small ruminants. Sokoine Univerisity of Agriculture, Tanzania, pp 2–4Google Scholar
  35. Monib MM, Arafa MI (2000) Parasitological studies of some gastrointestinal parasites of camels in Assiut governate with special refernce to zoonotic nematodes. Assiut Vet Med J 43(87):280–294Google Scholar
  36. Morsy NG (1997) Astudy on Eimeria species infecting camels (Camels dromedaries) in Egypt. Vet Med J Giza 45(4):499–507Google Scholar
  37. Nakayima J, Kabasa W, Aleper D, Okidi D (2017) Prevalence of endo-parasites in donkeys and camels in Karamoja sub-region, North-eastern Uganda. J Vet Med Animal Health 9(1):11–15Google Scholar
  38. Narnaware SD, Kumar S, Dahiya SS, Patil NV (2017) Concurrent infection of coccidiosis and haemonchosis in a dromedary camel calf from Rajasthan, India. J Camel Pract Res 24:225–228Google Scholar
  39. Nazifi S, Behzadi MA, Haddadi S, Raayat Jahromi A, Mehrshad S, Tamadon A (2010) Prevalence of Cryptosporidium isolated from dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Qeshm Island, Southern Iran. Comp Clin Pathol 19:311–314. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Osman FA, Gaadee HI, Sayed GA (2014) Clinico hematological and biochemical changes in camels affected with gastro-intestinal parasites. IJAVMS 8(5):154–161Google Scholar
  41. Parsani HR, Singh V, Momin RR (2008) Common parasitic diseases of camel. Vet World 1(10):317–318Google Scholar
  42. Radfar Mohammad Hossein, Gowhari Mansour Aminzadeh (2013) Common gastrointestinal parasites of indigenous camels (Camelus dromedarius) with traditional husbandry management (free-ranging system) in central deserts of Iran. J Parasit Dis 37(2):225–230. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Regassa F, Sori T, Dhuguma R, Kiros Y (2006) Epidemiology of gastrointestinal parasites of ruminants in Western Oromia, Ethiopia. Intern J Appl Res Vet Med 4(1):54–57Google Scholar
  44. Ryan U, Fayer R, Xiao L (2014) Cryptosporidium species in humans and animals: current understanding and research needs. Parasitology 141:1667–1685. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Sakr HRM (1988) Studies on the enteric protozao of camel in Egypt. Faculty of Veterinary medicine, Cairo University. M. V. ScGoogle Scholar
  46. Sazmand A, Rasooli A, Nouri M, Amidinejat H, Hekmatimoghaddam S (2011) Prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. in camels and involved people in Yazd Province, Iran. Iran J Parasitol 1:80–84Google Scholar
  47. Schuster FL, Ramirez L (2008) Current world status of Balantidium coli. Cli Microbiol Rev 21:626–638Google Scholar
  48. Sharrif L, Al-Qudah K, Al-Ani FK (1996) Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in camels in Jordan. J Camel Pract Res 5:1–4Google Scholar
  49. Singh RP, Sahai BN, Jha GJ (1984) Histopathology of the duodenum and rumen of goats during experimental infections with Paramphistomum cervi. Vet Parasitol 15:39–46PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Soulsby EL (1982) Helminths, arthropods and protozoa of domesticated animals. Bailliere Tindall, LondonGoogle Scholar
  51. Tekle T, Abede G (2001) Trypanosomosis and helminthoses: major health problems of camels (Camelus dromedarius) in the southern Rangelands of Bornea, Ethiopia. J Camel Pract Res 8(1):39–42Google Scholar
  52. Wernery U, Kadden OR (2002) Infection diseases in camelids. Blackwell, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  53. Yagoub IA (1989) Coccidiosis in Sudanese camels (Camelus dromedarius): 1-First record and description of Eimeria spp. harboured by camels in the eastern region of Sudan. J Protozool 36:422–423PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Yakhchali MM, Cheraghi E (2007) Eimeriosis in bactrian and dromedary camels in Miandoab region, Iran. Acta Vet 57(5–6):545–552Google Scholar
  55. Yakhchali M, Moradi T (2012) Prevalence of Cryptosporidium-like infection in one-humped camels (Camelus dromedarius) of Northwestern Iran. Parasite 19:71–75. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  56. Zahedi A, Paparini A, Jian F, Robertson I, Ryan U (2016) Public health significance of zoonotic Cryptosporidium species in wildlife: critical insights into better drinking water management. Int J Parasitol Parasites Wildl 5:88–109. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Zajac AM, Conboy GA (2012) Veterinary clinical parasitology. Wiley, ChichesterGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Indian Society for Parasitology 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Animal Medicine (Infectious Diseases), Faculty of Veterinary MedicineAssiut UniversityAsyutEgypt
  2. 2.Parasitology Lab, Zoology Department, Faculty of ScienceAssiut UniversityAsyutEgypt
  3. 3.Health Research Institute (Assiut Lab)AsyutEgypt

Personalised recommendations