Immunomodulatory effects of Moringa oleifera leaves aqueous extract in sheep naturally co-infected with Fasciola gigantica and Clostridium novyi
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The current study was designed to evaluate the in vivo fasciolicidal activity of Moringa (M.) oleifera leaf aqueous extract oral administration as well as its antibacterial activity against Clostridium (C.) novyi in sheep naturally co-infected with fascioliasis and C. novyi. Sheep naturally infected with fascioliasis were divided into 3 groups, heavily infected treated group, lightly infected treated group and mixed infection control (non-treated) group. Treatment groups were orally administered M. oleifera leaves aqueous extract at a dose of 150 mg/kg every 48 h for 21 days. Animal body weights, fecal egg count, serum levels of anti-Fasciola IgG, cytokines (IL-2, IL-17, IL-10), and bacterial count of C. novyi were evaluated. The results showed that treatment with M. oleifera improved the body weight gain and decreased fecal egg count in lightly and heavily infected groups compared to the nontreated group with 100% reduction in egg count in lightly infected sheep. Furthermore, the treatment with M. oleifera significantly reduced the serum levels of IgG, IL-2, and IL-17. Interestingly, elevated levels of IL-10 were recorded in both heavily and lightly infected sheep. The treatment with Moringa extract significantly decreased the fecal bacterial count of C. novyi in both heavily and lightly infected groups. In conclusion, this study highlights the potential beneficial effects of M. oleifera leaf against Fasciola (F.) gigantica and C. novyi.
KeywordsMoringa oleifera Anthelmintic Antimicrobial Liver flukes Cytokines Th17 Immunoglobulins
This study was supported by National Research Centre, Egypt (Grant No. 11020201) entitled: “Evaluation of the antimicrobial effect of propolis and Moringa on Fasciola gigantica and Clostridium oedematiens (Clostridium novyi) type B”.
EHA and AGH designed the study. HGK and EAF clinically diagnosed the infection. EEE, HGK participated in preparation of M. oleifera leaf aqueous extract, and animal’s treatment. EEE, HGK and EAF weighed animals and collected fecal, and blood samples. SEH identified and counted F. gigantica eggs in feces with determination of its morphology. EEE and SEH carried out ELISA for detection of F. gigantica specific antibodies. EEE conducted in cytokines quantification in sheep sera. EAF isolated, identified, characterized and counted C. novyi. AGH, EHA and EEE were conducting in data analyses and interpretation and in manuscript preparation. EEE was write manuscript. All authors have reviewed and approved the final manuscript.
Compliance with ethical standard
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflicts or competing interests.
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