Advertisement

Journal of Parasitic Diseases

, Volume 43, Issue 4, pp 537–543 | Cite as

Frequency and genetic diversity of Blastocystis subtypes among patients attending to health centers in Mazandaran, northern Iran

  • Davood Shaker
  • Davood Anvari
  • Seyed Abdollah Hosseini
  • Mahdi Fakhar
  • Ahmad Mardani
  • Hajar Ziaei Hezarjaribi
  • Sara Gholami
  • Shirzad GholamiEmail author
Original Article
  • 135 Downloads

Abstract

Blastocystis hominis is a common intestinal protozoan with global distribution. The prevalence of B. hominis is extremely diverse in different countries. Molecular studies show that there is a great deal of genetic variation in the Blastocystis parasite isolated from humans and animals. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine B. hominis genotypes in patients attending to health centers of Sari, Mazandaran Province, north of Iran. 420 fecal specimens were collected from individuals in health centers of Sari from April to December 2017. The samples were examined by direct methods, parasite test (formalin ether) and Giemsa staining. In order to determine the genotypes of Blastocystis parasite, all positive samples in direct methods were tested by PCR using SSU rDNA gene. Eventually, seven positive molecular samples were sequenced and recorded in the gene bank. The phylogenetic analysis was done by drawing a gene tree using the neighbor-joining procedure. B. hominis was detected in 60 stool specimens by microscopic method. All these 60 samples were positive by PCR and the bands 310 bp were observed. According to the phylogenetic tree, it was revealed that B. hominis isolates of Mazandaran Province are more similar to subtype ST3 (ST type) that reported in Khorramabad in Lorestan Province (West of Iran). The present study showed that, like most studies, ST3 is the dominant genotype of protozoan in Sari. Improvement of public health awareness, relative improvement in environmental health, urban wastewater treatment, proper clothing coverage and the use of gloves during dealing with livestock and the use of domestic water treatment devices can reduce the Blastocystis infection in this area.

Keywords

Blastocystis hominis Prevalence Genotype Mazandaran Iran 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This research is a part of the first author’s MSc thesis. The authors thank all colleagues working in Toxoplasmosis Research Centre (TRC) at Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences.

Author’s contribution

ShG, MF, HZH and AM provided the research proposal. DS, DA, SG collected the samples and performed laboratory works. ShG, MF and DA supervised the project. ShG was a scientific and lab diagnostic advisor to the project. SAH analysed the data. The manuscript was written by DS, finally revised by ShG. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

Ethical approval for the present study was duly obtained from and approved by Research committee of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in this article.

References

  1. Abe N, Nagoshi M, Takami K et al (2002) A survey of Blastocystis sp. in livestock, pets, and zoo animals in Japan. Vet Parasitol 106:203–212.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0304-4017(02)00050-X CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. AbuOdeh R, Ezzedine S, Samie A et al (2016) Prevalence and subtype distribution of Blastocystis in healthy individuals in Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. Infect Genet Evol 37:158–162.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meegid.2015.11.021 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Akhlaghi L, Shamseddin J, Meamar AR et al (2009) Frequency of intestinal parasites in Tehran. Iran J Parasitol 4:44–47Google Scholar
  4. Anvari D, Saadati D, Nabavi R, Alipour Eskandani M (2018) Epidemiology and molecular prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in Cattle Slaughtered in Zahedan and Zabol Districts, South East of Iran. Iran J Parasitol 13:114–119PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. Anvari D, Sharif M, Sarvi S et al (2019) Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in cancer patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Microb Pathog 129:30–42.  https://doi.org/10.1016/J.MICPATH.2019.01.040 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Belleza MLB, Cadacio JLC, Borja MP et al (2015) Epidemiologic study of Blastocystis infection in an urban community in the Philippines. J Environ Public Health 2015:1–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Boreham PFL, Stenzel DJ (1993) Blastocystis in humans and animals: morphology, biology, and epizootiology. Adv Parasitol 32:1–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cifre S, Gozalbo M, Ortiz V et al (2018) Blastocystis subtypes and their association with Irritable Bowel Syndrome. Med Hypotheses 116:4–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Corpet F (1988) Multiple sequence alignment with hierarchical clustering. Nucl Acids Res 16:10881–10890CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. El Safadi D, Gaayeb L, Meloni D et al (2014) Children of Senegal River Basin show the highest prevalence of Blastocystis sp. ever observed worldwide. BMC Infect Dis 14:1–11.  https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2334-14-164 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Fallah E, Mahami L, Mahami-Oskouei M, Safaiyan AR (2014) Prevalence of Blastosystis hominis infection in Tabriz in 2009-2010. Urmia Med J 25:1027–3727Google Scholar
  12. Greige S, El Safadi D, Bécu N et al (2018) Prevalence and subtype distribution of Blastocystis sp. isolates from poultry in Lebanon and evidence of zoonotic potential. Parasit Vectors 11:389CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Heydari-Hengami M, Hamedi Y, Najafi-Asl M, Sharifi-Sarasiabi K (2018) Prevalence of intestinal parasites in food handlers of Bandar Abbas, Southern Iran. Iran J Public Health 47:111PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. Horiki N, Maruyama M, Fujita Y et al (1997) Epidemiologic survey of Blastocystis hominis infection in Japan. Am J Trop Med Hyg 56:370–374.  https://doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.1997.56.370 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Kaneda Y, Horiki N, Cheng X et al (2001) Ribodemes of Blastocystis hominis isolated in Japan. Am J Trop Med Hyg 65:393–396CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Khademvatan S, Masjedizadeh R, Rahim F et al (2017) Blastocystis and irritable bowel syndrome: frequency and subtypes from Iranian patients. Parasitol Int 66:142–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Lee LI, Chye TT, Karmacharya BM, Govind SK (2012) Blastocystis sp.: waterborne zoonotic organism, a possibility? Parasites and Vectors 5:130.  https://doi.org/10.1186/1756-3305-5-130 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. MacPherson DW, MacQueen WM (1994) Morphological diversity of Blastocystis hominis in sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin-preserved stool samples stained with iron hematoxylin. J Clin Microbiol 32:267–268PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. Meamar AR, Rezaian M, Mohraz M et al (2007) A comparative analysis of intestinal parasitic infections between HIV +/AIDS patients and non-HIV infected individuals. Iran J Parasitol 2:1–6Google Scholar
  20. Mohamed AM, Ahmed MA, Ahmed SA et al (2017) Predominance and association risk of Blastocystis hominis subtype i in colorectal cancer: a case control study. Infect Agent Cancer 12:21.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s13027-017-0131-z CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. Mokhtari M (2010) Prevalence of Blastocystis homonis infection in Gayem hospital, Iran. In: 7th National 2nd Reg Congr Parasitol Parasit Dis Tehran,IranGoogle Scholar
  22. Moosavi A, Haghighi A, Mojarad EN et al (2012) Genetic variability of Blastocystis sp. isolated from symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals in Iran. Parasitol Res 111:2311–2315CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Oliveira-Arbex AP, David ÉB, Guimarães S (2018) Blastocystis genetic diversity among children of low-income daycare center in Southeastern Brazil. Infect Genet Evol 57:59–63.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meegid.2017.11.005 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Pandey PK, Verma P, Marathe N et al (2015) Prevalence and subtype analysis of Blastocystis in healthy Indian individuals. Infect Genet Evol 31:296–299.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meegid.2015.02.012 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Patino WD, Cavuoti D, Banerjee SK et al (2008) Cytologic diagnosis of Blastocystis hominis in peritoneal fluid. Acta Cytol 52:718–720CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Poirier P, Wawrzyniak I, Vivarès CP et al (2012) New insights into Blastocystis spp: a potential link with irritable bowel syndrome. PLoS Pathog 8:1002545CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Ramírez JD, Sánchez A, Hernández C et al (2016) Geographic distribution of human Blastocystis subtypes in South America. Infect Genet Evol 41:32–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Rene BA, Stensvold CR, Badsberg JH, Nielsen HV (2009) Subtype analysis of Blastocystis isolates from Blastocystis cyst excreting patients. Am J Trop Med Hyg 80:588–592CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Sardarian K, Hajilooi M, Maghsood A et al (2012) A study of the genetic variability of Blastocystis hominis Isolates in Hamadan, West of Iran. Jundishapur J Microbiol 6:11–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Shahdoust S, Niyyati M, Haghighi A et al (2016) Prevalence of intestinal parasites in referred individuals to the medical centers of Tonekabon city, Mazandaran province. Gastroenterol Hepatol from Bed to Bench 9(Suppl1):S75Google Scholar
  31. Stenzel DJ, Lee MG, Boreham PFL (1997) Morphological differences in Blastocystis cysts–an indication of different species? Parasitol Res 83:452–457CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Sukthana Y (2001) Is Blastocystis hominis a human pathogenic protozoan. J Trop Med Parasitol 24:16–22Google Scholar
  33. Suresh K, Smith H (2004) Comparison of methods for detecting Blastocystis hominis. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 23:509–511CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Tamura Koichiro, Dudley Joel, Masatoshi Nei SK (2007) MEGA4: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis (MEGA) Software Version 4.0. Mol Biol Evol 24:1596–1599CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Tan TC, Suresh KG (2006) Amoeboid form of Blastocystis hominis—a detailed ultrastructural insight. Parasitol Res 99:737–742CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Tan TC, Tan PC, Sharma R et al (2013) Genetic diversity of caprine Blastocystis from Peninsular Malaysia. Parasitol Res 112:85–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Villegas-Gómez I, Martínez-Hernández F, Urrea-Quezada A et al (2016) Comparison of the genetic variability of Blastocystis subtypes between human carriers from two contrasting climatic regions of México. Infect Genet Evol 44:334–340.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meegid.2016.07.036 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Wang J, Gong B, Yang F et al (2018) Subtype distribution and genetic characterizations of Blastocystis in pigs, cattle, sheep and goats in northeastern China’s Heilongjiang Province. Infect Genet Evol 57:171–176.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meegid.2017.11.026 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Whipps CM, Boorom K, Bermudez LE, Kent ML (2010) Molecular characterization of Blastocystis species in Oregon identifies multiple subtypes. Parasitol Res 106:827–832CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Yan Y, Su S, Lai R et al (2006) Genetic variability of Blastocystis hominis isolates in China. Parasitol Res 99:597–601CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Yoshikawa H, Abe N, Wu Z (2004) PCR-based identification of zoonotic isolates of Blastocystis from mammals and birds. Microbiology 150:1147–1151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Yoshikawa H, Tokoro M, Nagamoto T et al (2016) Molecular survey of Blastocystis sp. from humans and associated animals in an Indonesian community with poor hygiene. Parasitol Int 65:780–784CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Indian Society for Parasitology 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Student Research Committee, Department of Parasitology, School of MedicineMazandaran University of Medical SciencesSariIran
  2. 2.Iranshahr University of Medical SciencesIranshahrIran
  3. 3.Department of Parasitology, Molecular and Cell Biology Research Center, School of MedicineMazandaran University of Medical SciencesSariIran
  4. 4.Department of Microbiology, Blood Transfusion Research CenterHigh Institute for Research and Education in Transfusion MedicineTehranIran
  5. 5.Department of Parasitology, Toxoplasmosis Research Center, School of MedicineMazandaran University of Medical SciencesSariIran

Personalised recommendations