Cutaneous leishmaniasis: an epidemiological study in southwest of Iran
- 18 Downloads
The current study was aimed to evaluate the frequency and epidemiological aspects of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in the southwest of Iran, an endemic focus for the leishmaniasis from 2014 to 2017. In the present retrospective cross-sectional study, all suspicious CL persons who were referred to health centers affiliated to Abadan School of Medical Sciences (Abadan and Khorramshahr cities) were tested. In this regard, both clinical and parasitological (staining with Giemsa) verifications were performed to diagnose a case. Furthermore, a structured questionnaire containing some demographic details was applied for each positive patient. In total, 151 and 132 positive CL cases were identified in Abadan and Khorramshahr cities, respectively. More frequency of CL was observed during the Winter season, among male subjects, and in urban inhabitants in both cities. The incidence of CL based on age distribution was higher in the age range of 20–30 years than others. Besides, the hands and feet were the most involved organs. Although the frequency of CL has declined in the region, CL is still a public health problem. More appropriate control strategies are required to limit and eliminate the infection in the future.
KeywordsCutaneous leishmaniasis Leishmania Epidemiology Southwest of Iran
The authors would like to thank all staff at the healthcare centers in Abadan and Khorramshahr cities. We are very grateful to Dr Faezeh Hedayati-Rad (Department of Environmental Sciences, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran) for her helpful consultation and comments on the manuscript.
SS and MF designed the study protocol; SS, MH, HA, and MSK collected the data and involved in statistical analysis; MF and SS drafted the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final version of the manuscript.
This study was financially supported by Grant No (96ST-0141) from Student Research Committee, Abadan School of Medical Sciences, Abadan, Iran.
Compliance with ethical standards
No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.
All subjects voluntarily agreed to be tested. An informed consent was obtained from adult persons and parent or guardian of children less than 15 years old. This study received the approval from the Abadan School of Medical Sciences Ethical Committee (1396.234). Ethical issues (including plagiarism, misconduct, data fabrication and/or falsification, double publication and/or submission, redundancy, etc.) have been completely observed by the authors.
- Ahmadizadeh E, Soleimani K, Hosseinpour M, Zakeri A, Ahmadizadeh A (2013) Epidemiology of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Hormozgan province (2007–2011). Life Sci 10(3):1473–1475Google Scholar
- Amraee K, Rastegar HA, Beiranvand E (2012) An epidemiological study of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Poledokhtar district, Lorestan province, southwestern of Iran, 2001–2011. Jundishapur J Health Sci 5(1):55–62Google Scholar
- Ebadi M, Hejazi H (2003) The epidemiological study of cutaneous leishmaniasis situation in the students of primary school in Isfahan Borkhar region. J Kerman Univ Med Sci 10(2):92–98 (in Persian) Google Scholar
- Faulde M, Schrader J, Heyl G, Amirih M (2008) Differences in transmission seasons as an epidemiological tool for characterization of anthroponotic and zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in northern Afghanistan. Acta Trop 105(2):131–138. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2007.10.011 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Jamal Q, Shah A, Ali N, Ashraf M, Awan MM, Lee CM (2013) Prevalence and comparative analysis of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Dargai region in Pakistan. Pak J Zool 45(2):537–541Google Scholar
- Karimi A, Hanafi-Bojd AA, Yaghoobi-Ershadi MR, Akhavan AA, Ghezelbash Z (2014) Spatial and temporal distributions of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae), vectors of leishmaniasis, in Iran. Acta Trop 132:131–139. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2014.01.004 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kavarizadeh F, Khademvatan S, Vazirianzadeh B, Feizhaddad MH, Zarean M (2017) Molecular characterization of Leishmania parasites isolated from sandflies species of a zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in Musiyan south west Iran. J Parasit Dis 41(1):274–281. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12639-016-0792-3 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Khademvatan S, Neisi N, Maraghi S, Saki J (2011) Diagnosis and identification of Leishmania spp. from Giemsa-stained slides, by real-time PCR and melting curve analysis in south-west of Iran. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 105(8):559–565. https://doi.org/10.1179/2047773211y.0000000014 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Khajedaluee M et al (2014) Epidemiology of cutaneous leishmaniasis in population covered by Mashhad University of Medical Sciences in 2011. Med J Mashhad Univ Med Sci 57(4):647–654 (in Persian) Google Scholar
- Khosravani M, Moemenbellah-Fard MD, Sharafi M, Rafat-Panah A (2016) Epidemiologic profile of oriental sore caused by Leishmania parasites in a new endemic focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis, southern Iran. J Parasit Dis 40(3):1077–1081. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12639-014-0637-x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Nazari N, Faraji R, Vejdani M, Mekaeili A, Hamzavi Y (2012) The prevalence of cutaneous leishmaniases in patients referred to Kermanshah hygienic centers. Zahedan J Res Med Sci 14(8):77–79Google Scholar
- Saki J, Khademvatan S (2011) A molecular study on cutaneous leishmaniasis lesions in Khuzestan province (South west of Iran). Jundishapur J Microbiol 4(4):283–288Google Scholar
- Sofizadeh A, Cherabin M, Mehravaran A (2012) Cutaneous leishmaniasis in Gonbad Kavoos, North of Iran (2009–11): an epidemiological study. J Gorgan Univ Med Sci 14(4):100–106 (in Persian) Google Scholar
- Youssefi MR, Shojaei J, Jalahi H, Amoli SA, Ghasemi H, Javadian M (2011) Prevalence of cutaneous leishmaniasis during 2010 in Mazandaran Province, Iran. Afr J Microbiol Res 5(31):5793–5795Google Scholar