Advertisement

Cutaneous leishmaniasis: an epidemiological study in southwest of Iran

  • Shahrzad Soltani
  • Masoud ForoutanEmail author
  • Maryam Hezarian
  • Hamed Afshari
  • Mehdi Sagha Kahvaz
Original Article
  • 18 Downloads

Abstract

The current study was aimed to evaluate the frequency and epidemiological aspects of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in the southwest of Iran, an endemic focus for the leishmaniasis from 2014 to 2017. In the present retrospective cross-sectional study, all suspicious CL persons who were referred to health centers affiliated to Abadan School of Medical Sciences (Abadan and Khorramshahr cities) were tested. In this regard, both clinical and parasitological (staining with Giemsa) verifications were performed to diagnose a case. Furthermore, a structured questionnaire containing some demographic details was applied for each positive patient. In total, 151 and 132 positive CL cases were identified in Abadan and Khorramshahr cities, respectively. More frequency of CL was observed during the Winter season, among male subjects, and in urban inhabitants in both cities. The incidence of CL based on age distribution was higher in the age range of 20–30 years than others. Besides, the hands and feet were the most involved organs. Although the frequency of CL has declined in the region, CL is still a public health problem. More appropriate control strategies are required to limit and eliminate the infection in the future.

Keywords

Cutaneous leishmaniasis Leishmania Epidemiology Southwest of Iran 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank all staff at the healthcare centers in Abadan and Khorramshahr cities. We are very grateful to Dr Faezeh Hedayati-Rad (Department of Environmental Sciences, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran) for her helpful consultation and comments on the manuscript.

Author contributions

SS and MF designed the study protocol; SS, MH, HA, and MSK collected the data and involved in statistical analysis; MF and SS drafted the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final version of the manuscript.

Funding

This study was financially supported by Grant No (96ST-0141) from Student Research Committee, Abadan School of Medical Sciences, Abadan, Iran.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict interest

No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.

Ethical statement

All subjects voluntarily agreed to be tested. An informed consent was obtained from adult persons and parent or guardian of children less than 15 years old. This study received the approval from the Abadan School of Medical Sciences Ethical Committee (1396.234). Ethical issues (including plagiarism, misconduct, data fabrication and/or falsification, double publication and/or submission, redundancy, etc.) have been completely observed by the authors.

References

  1. Aara N et al (2013) Clinco-epidemiologic study of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Bikaner, Rajasthan, India. Am J Trop Med Hyg 89(1):111–115.  https://doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.12-0558 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. Ahmadizadeh E, Soleimani K, Hosseinpour M, Zakeri A, Ahmadizadeh A (2013) Epidemiology of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Hormozgan province (2007–2011). Life Sci 10(3):1473–1475Google Scholar
  3. Akhoundi M et al (2016) A historical overview of the classification, evolution, and dispersion of Leishmania parasites and sandflies. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 10(3):e0004349.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0004349 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. Akhoundi M et al (2017) Leishmania infections: molecular targets and diagnosis. Mol Asp Med 57:1–29.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mam.2016.11.012 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Alavinia S, Arzamani K, Reihani M, Jafari J (2009) Some epidemiological aspects of cutaneous leishmaniasis in northern Khorasan Province, Iran. Iran J Arthropod Borne Dis 3(2):50–54PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. Albakhit S, Khademvatan S, Doudi M, Foroutan-Rad M (2016) Antileishmanial activity of date (Phoenix dactylifera L) fruit and pit extracts in vitro. J Evid Based Complement Altern Med 21(4):NP98–NP102.  https://doi.org/10.1177/2156587216651031 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. AlSamarai AM, AlObaidi HS (2009) Cutaneous leishmaniasis in Iraq. J Infect Dev Ctries 3(2):123–129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Alvar J et al (2012) Leishmaniasis worldwide and global estimates of its incidence. PLoS ONE 7(5):e35671.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0035671 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. Amraee K, Rastegar HA, Beiranvand E (2012) An epidemiological study of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Poledokhtar district, Lorestan province, southwestern of Iran, 2001–2011. Jundishapur J Health Sci 5(1):55–62Google Scholar
  10. Croft SL, Sundar S, Fairlamb AH (2006) Drug resistance in leishmaniasis. Clin Microbiol Rev 19(1):111–126.  https://doi.org/10.1128/CMR.19.1.111-126.2006 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. Ebadi M, Hejazi H (2003) The epidemiological study of cutaneous leishmaniasis situation in the students of primary school in Isfahan Borkhar region. J Kerman Univ Med Sci 10(2):92–98 (in Persian) Google Scholar
  12. Faulde M, Schrader J, Heyl G, Amirih M (2008) Differences in transmission seasons as an epidemiological tool for characterization of anthroponotic and zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in northern Afghanistan. Acta Trop 105(2):131–138.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2007.10.011 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Foroutan M et al (2017a) A systematic review and meta-analysis of the prevalence of Leishmania infection in blood donors. Transfus Apher Sci 56(4):544–551.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.transci.2017.07.001 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Foroutan M et al (2017b) Prevalence of Leishmania species in rodents: a systematic review and meta-analysis in Iran. Acta Trop 172:164–172.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.04.022 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Foroutan-Rad M, Khademvatan S, Saki J, Hashemitabar M (2016) Holothuria leucospilota extract induces apoptosis in Leishmania major promastigotes. Iran J Parasitol 11(3):339–349PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. Holakouie-Naieni K, Mostafavi E, Boloorani AD, Mohebali M, Pakzad R (2017) Spatial modeling of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Iran from 1983 to 2013. Acta Trop 166:67–73.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2016.11.004 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Jamal Q, Shah A, Ali N, Ashraf M, Awan MM, Lee CM (2013) Prevalence and comparative analysis of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Dargai region in Pakistan. Pak J Zool 45(2):537–541Google Scholar
  18. Karami M, Doudi M, Setorki M (2013) Assessing epidemiology of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Isfahan, Iran. J Vector Borne Dis 50(1):30–37PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Karimi A, Hanafi-Bojd AA, Yaghoobi-Ershadi MR, Akhavan AA, Ghezelbash Z (2014) Spatial and temporal distributions of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae), vectors of leishmaniasis, in Iran. Acta Trop 132:131–139.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2014.01.004 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Kavarizadeh F, Khademvatan S, Vazirianzadeh B, Feizhaddad MH, Zarean M (2017) Molecular characterization of Leishmania parasites isolated from sandflies species of a zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in Musiyan south west Iran. J Parasit Dis 41(1):274–281.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12639-016-0792-3 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Khademvatan S, Neisi N, Maraghi S, Saki J (2011) Diagnosis and identification of Leishmania spp. from Giemsa-stained slides, by real-time PCR and melting curve analysis in south-west of Iran. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 105(8):559–565.  https://doi.org/10.1179/2047773211y.0000000014 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. Khademvatan S et al (2017) Spatial distribution and epidemiological features of cutaneous leishmaniasis in southwest of Iran. Alex J Med 53(1):93–98.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajme.2016.03.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Khajedaluee M et al (2014) Epidemiology of cutaneous leishmaniasis in population covered by Mashhad University of Medical Sciences in 2011. Med J Mashhad Univ Med Sci 57(4):647–654 (in Persian) Google Scholar
  24. Khosravani M, Moemenbellah-Fard MD, Sharafi M, Rafat-Panah A (2016) Epidemiologic profile of oriental sore caused by Leishmania parasites in a new endemic focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis, southern Iran. J Parasit Dis 40(3):1077–1081.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12639-014-0637-x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Namazi MJ, Dehkordi AB, Haghighi F, Mohammadzadeh M, Zarean M, Hasanabad MH (2018) Molecular detection of Leishmania species in northeast of Iran. Comp Clin Pathol 27(3):729–733.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00580-018-2658-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Nateghi Rostami M, Saghafipour A, Vesali E (2013) A newly emerged cutaneous leishmaniasis focus in central Iran. Int J Infect Dis 17(12):e1198–e1206.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2013.07.003 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Nazari N, Faraji R, Vejdani M, Mekaeili A, Hamzavi Y (2012) The prevalence of cutaneous leishmaniases in patients referred to Kermanshah hygienic centers. Zahedan J Res Med Sci 14(8):77–79Google Scholar
  28. Postigo JA (2010) Leishmaniasis in the world health organization Eastern Mediterranean Region. Int J Antimicrob Agents 36(Suppl 1):S62–S65.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2010.06.023 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Razmjou S, Hejazy H, Motazedian MH, Baghaei M, Emamy M, Kalantary M (2009) A new focus of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in Shiraz, Iran. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 103(7):727–730.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trstmh.2008.12.013 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Saki J, Khademvatan S (2011) A molecular study on cutaneous leishmaniasis lesions in Khuzestan province (South west of Iran). Jundishapur J Microbiol 4(4):283–288Google Scholar
  31. Saki J et al (2010) Mini-exon genotyping of Leishmania species in Khuzestan province, southwest Iran. Iran J Parasitol 5(1):25–34PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  32. Salmanzadeh S, Foroutan-Rad M, Khademvatan S, Moogahi S, Bigdeli S (2015) Significant decline of malaria incidence in southwest of Iran (2001–2014). J Trop Med 2015:523767.  https://doi.org/10.1155/2015/523767 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. Sharifi I et al (2011) Emergence of a new focus of anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania tropica in rural communities of Bam district after the earthquake, Iran. Trop Med Int Health 16(4):510–513.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3156.2011.02729.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Sofizadeh A, Cherabin M, Mehravaran A (2012) Cutaneous leishmaniasis in Gonbad Kavoos, North of Iran (2009–11): an epidemiological study. J Gorgan Univ Med Sci 14(4):100–106 (in Persian) Google Scholar
  35. Soltani S, Foroutan M, Afshari H, Hezarian M, Kahvaz MS (2018) Seroepidemiological evaluation of Toxoplasma gondii immunity among the general population in southwest of Iran. J Parasit Dis.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12639-018-1047-2 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Yaghoobi-Ershadi MR et al (2006) Evaluation of deltamethrin-impregnated bed nets and curtains for control of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in a hyperendemic area of Iran. Bull Soc Pathol Exot 99(1):43–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Youssefi MR, Shojaei J, Jalahi H, Amoli SA, Ghasemi H, Javadian M (2011) Prevalence of cutaneous leishmaniasis during 2010 in Mazandaran Province, Iran. Afr J Microbiol Res 5(31):5793–5795Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Indian Society for Parasitology 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Student Research CommitteeAbadan School of Medical SciencesAbadanIran
  2. 2.Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medical SciencesTarbiat Modares UniversityTehranIran

Personalised recommendations