Cross-sectional study of Eimeria species of poultry in Kwara State, North-Central Nigeria
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Coccidiosis is one of the biggest challenges faced by the global poultry industry as the protozoan is found anywhere poultry are reared. Before now, there have been no documents on the intensity and diversity of Eimeria species of poultry in Kwara State. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and intensity of Eimeria species and its species diversity among poultry in Kwara Central, North-Central Nigeria. Five hundred and two fecal samples (from four hundred and seventy two chickens and thirty turkeys) were collected from chickens and turkeys from 15 farms from December 2017 to May 2018. The samples were subjected to floatation technique. Positive samples were further subjected to the McMaster counting technique for determining the intensity of infection. Sporulation of unsporulated oocysts was carried out using 2.5% potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7), for the purpose of identifying the different Eimeria species. Ninety five (18.9%) of the sampled population, 10 (66.7%) of the 15 sampled farms were positive for Eimeria species. The total mean oocyst per gram was 6325.0. Eight Eimeria species were detected in the study: 7 in chickens and 1 in turkeys. Eimeria tenella was the most predominant among chickens, E. meleagrimitis was the only species detected in turkeys. Age, sex, bird type, physiological status, farm age, farm size (acres), management system, frequency of anthelmintic use, frequency of anticoccidial use, distance to dumping site (meters), level of biosecurity and frequency of cleaning the pen were significantly associated (P < 0.05) with the occurrence of Eimeria infection. It is envisaged that the information obtained in this study will contribute to a clearer understanding of the epidemiology of poultry coccidiosis, for better management protocol which will improve the productivity of the sector in Kwara State and Nigeria.
KeywordsEimeria species Kwara State Prevalence Risk factors
The authors would like to express their profound gratitude to the farm owners for giving us attention and access to their birds.
SDO conceived and designed the study, was involved in the labouratory work, did the data analysis and drafted the manuscript. PIU did the sampling and partook in laboratory work. IMS, KH, IAG, MR were involved in laboratory work RBB was involved in the sampling. All authors read, revised and approved the final manuscript.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare no conflict of interest among them.
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