Toxicity of formalin for fingerlings of Cyprinus carpio var. koi and in vitro efficacy against Dactylogyrus minutus Kulwièc, 1927 (Monogenea: Dactylogyridae)

  • Karen Roberta TancredoEmail author
  • Natália da Costa Marchiori
  • Scheila Anelise Pereira
  • Maurício Laterça Martins
Original Article


The toxicity of formalin on Cyprinus carpio var. koi and its anti-parasite effects against Dactylogyrus minutus (Monogenea) in in vitro tests is analyzed. Specimens of D. minutus were submitted to eight concentrations of formalin: 50, 75, 100, 125, 150, 175, 200, 250 mg L−1, in triplicate. Concentrations of formalin 100, 150 and 200 mg L−1 were then tested to determine the median lethal concentration of 50% of the fish per immersion bath. Fish behavior was also observed during the first 6 h of exposure. The 200 mg L−1 concentration was the most rapid efficacy for D. minutus, killing all parasites in 16 min. All parasites were killed in 47 min at concentration 100 mg L−1. Concentration 200 mg L−1 was the most lethal for fish in less than 24 h exposure, with 24 h LC50 at 135.44 (119.78–153.14) mg L−1. The therapeutic index was 2.05–30 min and 1.15–16 min. A short bath (1 h) is recommended in koi carp with a minimum concentration of 75 mg L−1 of formalin, not exceeding 100 mg L−1 for treatment against D. minutus.


Cyprinus carpio Treatment Formalin Therapeutic index Monogenea Dactylogyrus sp. 



The authors thank National Council of Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq) for financial support (CNPq 446072/2014-1) and Research grant to M.L. Martins (CNPq 305869/2014-0), Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel (CAPES/EMBRAPA Ed. 15/236) for PhD scholarship to K.R. Tancredo, and Vale dos Betas fish farm for fish donation. This study as financed in part by the Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel—Brazil (CAPES)—Finance Code 001.

Authors’ contributions

KRT: written the article, in vitro and in vivo test. NCM: in vitro and in vivo test. SP: statistical analysis. MLM (advisor): critical review of the article.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All procedures were performed following protocols by the Ethics Committee of the Federal University of Santa Catarina (CEUA/UFSC/PP00928).


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Copyright information

© Indian Society for Parasitology 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.AQUOS – Aquatic Organisms Health Laboratory, Aquaculture DepartmentFederal University of Santa Catarina (UFSC)FlorianópolisBrazil
  2. 2.EPAGRI - Company of Agricultural Research and Rural Extension of Santa CatarinaCamboriúBrazil

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