Advertisement

Spatio-temporal distribution analysis of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in Qom Province, Iran

  • Mojtaba Salimi
  • Nahid Jesri
  • Mohammad Javanbakht
  • Leyli Zanjirani Farahani
  • Mohammad Reza Shirzadi
  • Abedin Saghafipour
Original Article

Abstract

Geographic information system (GIS) nowadays is one of the most helpful epidemiological tools for identifying the high risk areas of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). This study was conducted to determine the spatio-temporal distribution of CL in Qom province during 2009–2017. In a cross-sectional study, for the survey of spatial dispersion of CL in the study region, the incidence rate of disease was calculated in all of 23 villages during 2009–2017. Then, spatial analysis of the infection was performed using two methods: spatial autocorrelation (Moran’s I) in order to determine the special distribution pattern of disease and Kriging method to reveal high risk areas for disease. The incidence of CL in Qom province has been decreasing as of 2009–2015 and increasing in 2015–2017. The highest incidence was stated in 2009 (36.5 per 100,000) and the least was reported in 2015 (13.3 per 100,000). The Moran autocorrelation index revealed that the study area has a cluster pattern. The temporal distribution of disease incidence showed that northeast, southwest and northwest parts of Qom province involved highest incidence of CL in 90% significant level. Leishmaniasis incidence is a function of spatial and geographical trends, thus spatial variations of the infection incidence illustrate that the incidence rate does not increase or decrease from one region to another intensively. The results of this study indicate that marking high risk areas using spatial analysis can be helpful as a main tool in CL control and prevention.

Keywords

Cutaneous leishmaniasis Spatio-temporal analysis GIS Qom Iran 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors are grateful to the research deputy of Qom University of Medical Science. Ethical clearance was earned from the Institutional Ethics Committee of Razavi Khorasan University of Medical Sciences (QUMS.REC.1396.114).

Author contributions

Conceptualization: MS AS MS. Data curation: MS AS. Formal analysis: MJ NJ. Funding acquisition: AS. Methodology: AS MRS MJ. Project administration: MS AS. Resources: AS. Software: NJ. Supervision: AS. Validation: LZF. Visualization: MS AS. Writing ± original draft: MS AS MRS LZF. Writing ± review and editing: AS.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

None.

References

  1. Alvar J, Vélez ID, Bern C, Herrero M, Desjeux P, Cano J et al (2012) Leishmaniasis worldwide and global estimates of its incidence. PLoS ONE 7:e35671CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bayatani A, Sadeghi A (2012) Spatial analysis of environmental factors of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Iran using GIS. Hakim Res J 15:158–165Google Scholar
  3. Chen Y (2013) New approaches for calculating Moran’s Index of spatial autocorrelation. PLoS ONE 8:e68336CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Farzinnia B, Saghafipour A, Abai M (2010) Malaria situation and anopheline mosquitoes in Qom province, Central Iran. Iran J Arthropod-Borne Dis 4:61–67PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. Gordis L (2009) Epidemiology. Saunders, Philadelphia, pp 247–263Google Scholar
  6. Khan OA, Davenhall W, Ali M, Castillo-Salgado C, Vazquez-Prokopec G, Kitron U et al (2010) Geographical information systems and tropical medicine. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 104:303–318CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Kleijnen JPC (2009) Kriging metamodeling in simulation: a review. Eur J Oper Res 192:707–716CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Norouzinezhad F, Ghaffari F, Norouzinejad A, Kaveh F, Gouya MM (2016) Cutaneous leishmaniasis in Iran: results from an epidemiological study in urban and rural provinces. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 6:614–619CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Parvizi P, Ahmadipour F (2011) Fauna, abundance and dispersion of sandflies in three endemic areas of cutaneous leishmaniasis in rural fars province. J Shahid Sadoughi Univ Med Sci 19:173–182Google Scholar
  10. Rassi Y, Hanafi–Bojd AA (2008) Phlebotominae sand flies, vector of leishmaniases, 1st edn. Noavaran Elm Publications, Tehran, pp 39–58Google Scholar
  11. Ready PD (2008) Leishmaniasis emergence and climate change. Rev Sci Tech 27:399–412CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Saghafipour A, Zahraei-Ramazani A, Vatandoost H, Mozaffari E, Rezaei F, Karami Jooshin M (2018) Prevalence and risk factors associated with head louse (Pediculus humanus capitis) among primary school girls in Qom province, Central Iran. Int J Pediatr 6:7553–7562Google Scholar
  13. Shakila A, Bilqees FM, Salim A, Moinuddin M (2006) Geographical distribution of cutaneous leishmaniasis and sand flies in Pakistan. Turk J Parasitol 30:1–6Google Scholar
  14. Singh K (1999) Studies on the role of climatological factors in the distribution of phlebotomine sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in semi-arid areas of Rajasthan, India. J Arid Environ 42:43–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Steverding D (2017) The history of leishmaniasis. Parasites Vectors 10:82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Tanser FC, le Sueur D (2002) The application of geographical information systems to important public health problems in Africa. Int J Health Geogr 1:4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Torres-Guerrero E, Quintanilla-Cedillo MR, Ruiz-Esmenjaud J, Arenas R (2017) Leishmaniasis: a review. F1000Res 6:750CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. World Health Organization (WHO) Global health observatory. http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs375/en/. Accessed on March 2018
  19. Yaghoobi-Ershadi MR, Jafari R, Hanafi-Bojd AA (2004) A new epidemic focus of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in central Iran. Ann Saudi Med 24:98–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Indian Society for Parasitology 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Research Center for Environmental Determinants of HealthKermanshah University of Medical SciencesKermanshahIran
  2. 2.Research Center for Environmental PollutantsQom University of Medical SciencesQomIran
  3. 3.Department of Remote Sensing and GIS, Faculty of GeographyUniversity of TehranTehranIran
  4. 4.Department of Medical Parasitology and Mycology, School of Public HealthTehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  5. 5.Communicable Diseases Management CenterMinistry of Health and Medical EducationTehranIran
  6. 6.Department of Public Health, Faculty of HealthQom University of Medical SciencesQomIran

Personalised recommendations