Evaluation of vaccine candidates purified from the adult ticks of Ornithodoros savignyi (Acari: Argasidae) and Hyalomma dromedarii (Acari: Ixodidae) against tick infestations
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Ticks cause anemia, toxicosis, growth delay, and transmit infectious diseases in animals and humans. The current study aimed to evaluate the immunoprophylactic properties of two vaccine candidates to develop vaccine against tick infestations. These two vaccine candidates were specific fraction from the adults of the soft tick Ornithodoros savignyi and cross-reactive fraction from the adults of the hard tick Hyalomma dromedarii. Both specific and cross-reactive fractions were isolated by Cyanogen Bromide-activated Sepharose-4B affinity column chromatography. Both candidates proved their cross-reactivity by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and Western blot. Characterization of the two vaccines by SDS-PAGE showed that the O. savignyi specific fraction consists of four bands; 97, 85, 66 and 11.5 kDa compared with nine bands associated with its crude antigen (196–11.5 kDa). The H. dromedarii cross-reactive vaccine candidate consists of three bands; 97, 66 and 45 kDa compared to eight bands of its crude antigen (196–21 kDa). Two common bands of 97 and 66 kDa between two candidates showed immunogenic cross-reactivity with the developed antisera of both infestations by Western blot. Immunization of rabbits intramuscularly with two doses of the fractions separately (40 µg/kg) led to immunological and parasitological changes. Immunologically; the level of immunoglobulins in vaccinated rabbits increased significantly compared with control infested non-vaccinated rabbits. These immunoglobulins are probably responsible for the protective effect of both candidates. Parasitologically, immunized rabbits showed protection against infestation by adult ticks as proved by significant feeding rejection percentage and significant reduction in egg and engorgement weights of H. dromedarii. While insignificant protection was observed against O. savignyi ticks infestation in feeding rejection and reduction in engorgement weight. In conclusion, this study suggests promising immunoprophylactic potentials of the purified fractions against tick infestations in rabbits through induction of IgG responses. The protective effect of both vaccine candidates deserves further evaluation in other hosts and against other tick infestations.
KeywordsCross reactive antigen Hyalomma dromedarii Purified antigen Ornithodoros savignyi Vaccination
All authors participated in the study design. NIT and SA collected ticks and blood samples. NIT and EHA performed affinity chromatography, ELIZA, SDS-PAGE and western blot assays. NIT, HGS and SA shared in the rabbit-vaccine experiment. NIT and SA analyzed, figured and tabulated the data. NIT, SA and EHA participated in writing the manuscript. All authors revised and approved the manuscript.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
This study was approved to the ethical standards of the relevant national and institutional guides on the care and use of laboratory animals by Medical Research Ethics Committee (No, 17132) at National Research Centre in Egypt.
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