A serological survey of Toxoplasma gondii infection in sheep and goat from Benin, West-Africa

  • Aretas Babatoundé Nounnagnon Tonouhewa
  • Yao Akpo
  • Anjum Serasiya
  • Philippe Sessou
  • Justin Mario Adinci
  • Gibert Luc Aplogan
  • Issaka Youssao
  • Marc Napoleon Assogba
  • Souaïbou Farougou
Original Article


Toxoplasma gondii is a parasitic protozoan, the etiological agent of toxoplasmosis, a worldwide zoonosis responsible for abortion and congenital malformation in animal and human. The present study reports, for the first time, the occurrence of T. gondii infection among sheep and goats from Benin. A total of 368 small ruminants: 215 serum samples from sheep raised in Sahelian area of North Benin and 153 serum samples from goats raised in a family farm from South-Benin, were collected and screened for anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies by the ELISA-indirect method. The results show the presence of anti-T. gondii IgG in 53% (83/153) of goats and 1.4% of sheep (3/215). Age, sex and breed did not seem to affect the frequency of this infection. Among goats, T. gondii infection was higher in animals reared in the coastal zone (Cotonou municipality) than those raised on the island (Allada municipality) [odds ratio (OR) = 4, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.07–15.002, p = 0.032, (χ2) test]. Humidity would be the determining factor in the disparity of recorded infection rates among sheep and goat. The high prevalence of caprine toxoplasmosis observed in southern Benin shows strong environmental contamination. Sensitization campaigns should therefore be undertaken by the public health authorities to inform the inhabitants of this area about risks and preventive measures of this zoonose.


Zoonose Toxoplasma Sheep Seroprevalence Goat Benin 



Laboratoire de Diagnostic Véterinaire et de Sérosurveillance de Parakou (LADISERO/Bénin), Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries, Benin for serological and molecular diagnosis (alphabetic order by surname): Akpo Ghislaine, Adjin Rachida and Tohozin Rogatien.

Author’s contributions

ABNT and YA conducted the survey and wrote the manuscript. AS helped in interpreting the results and worked on the manuscript. PS and JMA performed statistical analyses and designed the figures. GLA aided to perform the serological analyses and interpretation of results. MNA, IY and SF participated in the planning and supervision of the work.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors state that they have no competing interests.


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Copyright information

© Indian Society for Parasitology 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Aretas Babatoundé Nounnagnon Tonouhewa
    • 1
  • Yao Akpo
    • 2
  • Anjum Serasiya
    • 4
  • Philippe Sessou
    • 3
  • Justin Mario Adinci
    • 1
  • Gibert Luc Aplogan
    • 3
  • Issaka Youssao
    • 1
  • Marc Napoleon Assogba
    • 1
  • Souaïbou Farougou
    • 1
  1. 1.Communicable Disease Research Unit (URMaT)University of Abomey-CalaviCotonouBenin
  2. 2.Laboratory of Ecology, Health and Animal Production, Faculty of AgronomyUniversity of ParakouParakouBenin
  3. 3.Laboratory for Veterinary Diagnosis and Serosurveillance of Animal DiseasesMinistry of Agriculture, Livestock and FisheriesCotonouBenin
  4. 4.State Department of Animal HusbandryWankaner, Dist. MorbiIndia

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