Journal of Parasitic Diseases

, Volume 41, Issue 4, pp 919–928 | Cite as

Free-living amoebae in the water resources of Iran: a systematic review

  • Ehsan Saburi
  • Toktam Rajaii
  • Asma Behdari
  • Mohammad Hasan Kohansal
  • Hossein Vazini
Review Article


Free-living amoebae (FLA) are a group of protozoa with the capabilities of growth in the environment and invasion to the human body which have been isolated from different water sources. Acanthamoeba, Naegleria, and Balamuthia are the most important FLA. These cause a variety of severe complications of eye and central nervous system. Despite the fact that various studies have demonstrated the prevalence of FLA in different parts of Iran, there is no comprehensive evaluation and conclusion regarding the pollution of various water sources in Iran. This review was carried out to achieve the prevalence pattern of FLA in water resources across Iran to design appropriate health strategies. For this purpose, 8 online databases in English and Persian and also graduate thesis and national parasitology congresses were studied. The key words such as “free living amoebae”, “Acanthamoeba”, “Naegleria”, “Hartmannella”, “Balamuthia”, “Sappinia”, “Vermamoebae”, “Valkampfia”, “water resources”, “water” and “Iran” were used to search articles between 1990 to 2017. From a total of 236 articles found, 38 reliable articles were included in the study. From the total number of investigated studies, the estimated prevalence was obtained as 36% among 2430 samples. Although Acanthamoeba prevalence has been considered as a priority, most kinds of free-living amoebae were found in all kinds of water resources. Due to the lack of free-living amoebae prevalence in more than a quarter of the Iranian provinces, more studies are recommended to achieve a better perspective to make comprehensive decisions to improve the hygiene of water resources.


Free living Amoeba Water sources Iran Systematic review 



Amoebic keratitis


Polymerase chain reaction


Free living amoeba


Granulomatous amoebic encephalitis


Non-nutrient agar



We would like to thank Dr. Ali Reza Esmaeli for helpful comments on the manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict to interest

All the authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


  1. Abedkhojasteh H, Niyyati M, Rahimi F, Heidari M, Farnia S, Rezaeian M (2013) First report of Hartmannella keratitis in a cosmetic soft contact lens wearer in Iran. Iran J Parasitol 8(3):481–485PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. Aghajani A, Dabirzadeh M, Maroufi Y, Hooshyar H (2016) Identification of acanthamoeba genotypes in pools and stagnant water in ponds in Sistan region in Southeast Iran. Turkiye Parazitol Derg 40(3):132–136CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Armand B, Motazedian MH, Asgari Q (2015) Isolation and identification of pathogenic free-living amoeba from surface and tap water of Shiraz City using morphological and molecular methods. Parasitol Res 9:1–9Google Scholar
  4. Badirzadeh A, Niyyati M, Babaei Z, Amini H, Badirzadeh H, Rezaeian M (2011) Isolation of free-living amoebae from Sarein hot springs in Ardebil province, Iran. Iran J Parasitol 6(2):1–8PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. Bagheri H, Shafiei R, Shafiei F, Sajjadi S (2010) Isolation of Acanthamoeba spp. From drinking waters in several hospitals of Iran. Iran J Parasitol 5(2):19–25PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. Behniafar H, Niyyati M, Lasjerdi Z (2015) Molecular characterization of pathogenic acanthamoeba isolated from drinking and recreational water in East Azerbaijan, Northwest Iran. Environ Health Insights 9:7–12CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. Behravan M, Malekaneh M, Mesbahzadeh B, Sharifzadeh G, Namaei MH, Behniafar H et al (2015) Microscopic isolation and characterization of free living amoebae (FLA) from surface water sources in Birjand, the capital city of the South Khorasan. J Birjand Univ Med Sci 22(2):161–168Google Scholar
  8. Bonilla-Lemus P, Ramirez-Bautista GA, Zamora-Munoz C, Ibarra-Montes Mdel R, Ramirez-Flores E, Hernandez-Martinez MD (2010) Acanthamoeba spp. in domestic tap water in houses of contact lens wearers in the metropolitan area of Mexico City. Exp Parasitol 126(1):54–58CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Dabirzadeh M, Daghajani A, Hooshyar H (2015) Isolation and identification of Acanthamoeba from pools water and ponds in Sistan area, Sistan Baluchestan province. J Zabol Univ Med Sci Health Serv 7(1):e3391Google Scholar
  10. De Jonckheere JF (2003) Epidemiological typing of Acanthamoeba strains isolated from keratitis cases in Belgium. Bull Soc Belge Ophtalmol 287:27–33Google Scholar
  11. Delafont V, Mougari F, Cambau E, Joyeux M, Bouchon D, Hechard Y et al (2014) First evidence of amoebae-mycobacteria association in drinking water network. Environ Sci Technol 48(20):11872–11882CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Eftekhar M, Nazemalhosseini Mojarad E, Haghighi A, Sharifi Sarasiabi K, Nochi Z, Athari A (2009) Detection of Acanthamoeba from fresh water using polymerase chain reaction. Res Med 33(1):43–46Google Scholar
  13. Garcia LS (2006) Diagnostic medical parasitology. American Society for Microbiology Press, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  14. Ghadar-ghadr S, Solhjoo K, Norouz-nejad M, Rohi R, Zia-Jahromi S (2012) Isolation and identification of free living amoeba (Naegleria and Acanthamoeba) in Shiraz water resources by morphological criteria. Pars Jahrom Univ Med Sci 10(3):33–42Google Scholar
  15. Hajialilo E, Niyyati M, Solaymani M, Rezaeian M (2015) Pathogenic free-living amoebae isolated from contact lenses of keratitis patients. Iran J Parasitol 10(4):541–546PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. Hajialilo E, Behnia M, Tarighi F, Niyyati M, Rezaeian M (2016) Isolation and genotyping of Acanthamoeba strains (T4, T9, and T11) from amoebic keratitis patients in Iran. Parasitol Res 115(8):3147–3151CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Hooshyar H, Hosseinbigi B, Saraei M, Alizadeh S, Eftakhar M, Rasti S et al (2013) Genotyping of acanthamoeba isolated from surface and stagnant waters of Qazvin, central Iran. Iran Red Crescent Med J 15(6):536–538CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. Hosseinbigi B, Sarie SahnehSaraie M, Alizadeh S, Rasti S, Eftakhar M, Khosro-Shahi N et al (2012) Isolation and molecular identification of Acanthamoeba in surface stagnant waters of Qazvin. J Qazvin Univ Med Sci 16(3):26–32Google Scholar
  19. Huang SW, Hsu BM (2010) Isolation and identification of Acanthamoeba from Taiwan spring recreation areas using culture enrichment combined with PCR. Acta Trop 115(3):282–287CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Karamati SA, Niyyati M, Lorenzo-Morales J, Lasjerdi Z (2016) Isolation and molecular characterization of Acanthamoeba genotypes isolated from soil sources of public and recreational areas in Iran. Acta Parasitol 61(4):784–789CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Khan NA (2003) Pathogenesis of Acanthamoeba infections. Microb Pathog 34(6):277–285CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Khan NA (2006) Acanthamoeba: biology and increasing importance in human health. FEMS Microbiol Rev 30(4):564–595CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Khezri A, Fallah E, Mostafazadeh M, Spotin A, Shahbazi A, Mahami-Oskouei M et al (2016) Molecular and morphometric characterization of Acanthamoeba spp. from different water sources of Northwest Iran as a neglected focus, co-bordered with the country of Iraq. Jundishapur J Microbiol 9(11):e38481CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. Kilvington S, Gray T, Dart J, Morlet N, Beeching JR, Frazer DG et al (2004) Acanthamoeba keratitis: the role of domestic tap water contamination in the United Kingdom. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 45(1):165–169CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Kong HH (2009) Molecular phylogeny of Acanthamoeba. Korean J Parasitol 47(Suppl):S21–S28CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. Lasjerdi Z, Niyyati M, Haghighi A, Zaeri F, Nazemalhosseini Mojarad E (2011a) First report of Vannellidae amoebae (Vannella spp.) isolated from biofilm source. Iran J Parasitol 6(4):84–89PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. Lasjerdi Z, Niyyati M, Haghighi A, Shahabi S, Biderouni FT, Taghipour N et al (2011b) Potentially pathogenic free-living amoebae isolated from hospital wards with immunodeficient patients in Tehran, Iran. Parasitol Res. 109(3):575–580CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Lasjerdi Z, Niyyati M, Lorenzo-Morales J, Haghighi A, Taghipour N (2015) Ophthalmology hospital wards contamination to pathogenic free living Amoebae in Iran. Acta Parasitol 60(3):417–422CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Latifi A, Niyyati M, Valayi N, Lasjerdi Z (2014) Frequency survey of free-living amoebae isolated from improved hot springs of Mazandaran Province, 2014. Res Med 38(4):214–220Google Scholar
  30. Latifi AR, Niyyati M, Lorenzo-Morales J, Haghighi A, Seyyed Tabaei SJ, Lasjerdi Z (2016) Presence of Balamuthia mandrillaris in hot springs from Mazandaran province, northern Iran. Epidemiol Infect 144(11):2456–2461CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Latifi AR, Niyyati M, Lorenzo-Morales J, Haghighi A, Tabaei SJ, Lasjerdi Z et al (2017) Occurrence of Naegleria species in therapeutic geothermal water sources, Northern Iran. Acta Parasitol 62(1):104–109CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Lorenzo-Morales J, Ortega-Rivas A, Foronda P, Martinez E, Valladares B (2005a) Isolation and identification of pathogenic Acanthamoeba strains in Tenerife, Canary Islands. Spain from water sources. Parasitol Res. 95(4):273–277CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Lorenzo-Morales J, Monteverde-Miranda CA, Jimenez C, Tejedor ML, Valladares B, Ortega-Rivas A (2005b) Evaluation of Acanthamoeba isolates from environmental sources in Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain. Ann Agric Environ Med 12(2):233–236PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Lorenzo-Morales J, Ortega-Rivas A, Martinez E, Khoubbane M, Artigas P, Periago MV et al (2006) Acanthamoeba isolates belonging to T1, T2, T3, T4 and T7 genotypes from environmental freshwater samples in the Nile Delta region, Egypt. Acta Trop. 100(1–2):63–69CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Lorenzo-Morales J, Lopez-Darias M, Martinez-Carretero E, Valladares B (2007a) Isolation of potentially pathogenic strains of Acanthamoeba in wild squirrels from the Canary Islands and Morocco. Exp Parasitol 117(1):74–79CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Lorenzo-Morales J, Martínez-Carretero E, Batista N, Álvarez-Marín J, Bahaya Y, Walochnik J, Valladares B (2007b) Early diagnosis of amoebic keratitis due to a mixed infection with Acanthamoeba and Hartmannella. Parasitol Res 102(1):167–169CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Lorenzo-Morales J, Marciano-Cabral F, Lindo JF, Visvesvara GS, Maciver SK (2010) Pathogenicity of amoebae. Exp Parasitol 126(1):2–3CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Lorenzo-Morales J, Khan NA, Walochnik J (2015) An update on Acanthamoeba keratitis: diagnosis, pathogenesis and treatment. Parasite 22:10CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  39. Mafi M, Niyyati M, Haghighi A, Lasjerdi Z (2017) Contamination of swimming pools and park ponds with free living amoebae in Tehran. MJTUOMS. 38(6):60–67Google Scholar
  40. Mahmoudi MR, Taghipour N, Eftekhar M, Haghighi A, Karanis P (2012) Isolation of Acanthamoeba species in surface waters of Gilan province-north of Iran. Parasitol Res 110(1):473–477CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Mahmoudi MR, Kazemi B, Haghighi A, Karanis P (2015a) Detection of acanthamoeba and toxoplasma in river water samples by molecular methods in Iran. Iran J Parasitol 10(2):250–257PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  42. Mahmoudi MR, Rahmati B, Seyedpour SH, Karanis P (2015b) Occurrence and molecular characterization of free-living amoeba species (Acanthamoeba, Hartmannella, and Saccamoeba limax) in various surface water resources of Iran. Parasitol Res 114(12):4669–4674CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Mahmoudi MR, Berenji F, Fata A, Najafzadeh MJ, Asadian A, Salehi M (2015c) Morphological characterization of potentially pathogenic thermophilic amoebae isolated from surface water in Mashhad, Iran. Jundishapur J Microbiol 8(4):e25944CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  44. Manesh RM, Niyyati M, Yousefi HA, Eskandarian AA (2016) Isolation of Acanthamoeba spp. from different water sources in Isfahan, central Iran, 2014. J Parasit Dis 40(4):1483–1486CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Maschio VJ, Chies F, Carlesso AM, Carvalho A, Rosa SP, Van Der Sand ST et al (2015) Acanthamoeba T4, T5 and T11 isolated from mineral water bottles in southern Brazil. Curr Microbiol 70(1):6–9CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Memari F, Niyyati M, Haghighi A, Seyyed Tabaei SJ, Lasjerdi Z (2015) Occurrence of pathogenic Acanthamoeba genotypes in nasal swabs of cancer patients in Iran. Parasitol Res 114(5):1907–1912CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Memari F, Niyyati M, Lorenzo-Morales J, Jonaydi Z (2016) Isolation and molecular characterization of Acanthamoeba strains isolated from the oral cavity of immunosuppressed individuals in Tehran, Iran. Acta Parasitol 61(3):451–455CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Mosayebi M, Ghorbanzadeh B, Eslamirad Z, Ejtehadifar M, Rastad B (2014) The isolation and detection of acanthamoeba keratitis in rural water sources of Arak, Iran. Med Lab J 7(4):66–71Google Scholar
  49. Nazar M, Haghighi A, Niyyati M, Eftekhar M, Tahvildar-Biderouni F, Taghipour N et al (2011) Genotyping of Acanthamoeba isolated from water in recreational areas of Tehran, Iran. J Water Health 9(3):603–608CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Nazar M, Haghighi A, Taghipour N, Ortega-Rivas A, Tahvildar-Biderouni F, Nazemalhosseini Mojarad E et al (2012) Molecular identification of Hartmannella vermiformis and Vannella persistens from man-made recreational water environments, Tehran, Iran. Parasitol Res 111(2):835–839CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Niyyati M, Lorenzo-Morales J, Rahimi F, Motevalli-Haghi A, Martin-Navarro CM, Farnia S et al (2009a) Isolation and genotyping of potentially pathogenic Acanthamoeba strains from dust sources in Iran. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 103(4):425–427CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Niyyati M, Lorenzo-Morales J, Rezaie S, Rahimi F, Mohebali M, Maghsood AH et al (2009b) Genotyping of Acanthamoeba isolates from clinical and environmental specimens in Iran. Exp Parasitol 121(3):242–245CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Niyyati M, Lorenzo-Morales J, Rezaie S, Rahimi F, Martin-Navarro CM, Mohebali M et al (2010) First report of a mixed infection due to Acanthamoeba genotype T3 and Vahlkampfia in a cosmetic soft contact lens wearer in Iran. Exp Parasitol 126(1):89–90CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Niyyati M, Lasjerdi Z, Nazar M, Haghighi A, Nazemalhosseini Mojarad E (2012) Screening of recreational areas of rivers for potentially pathogenic free-living amoebae in the suburbs of Tehran, Iran. J Water Health 10(1):140–146CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Niyyati M, Rahimi F, Lasejerdi Z, Rezaeian M (2014) Potentially pathogenic free-living amoebae in contact lenses of the asymptomatic contact lens wearers. Iran J Parasitol 9(1):14–19PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  56. Niyyati M, Lasgerdi Z, Lorenzo-Morales J (2015a) Detection and molecular characterization of potentially pathogenic free-living amoebae from water sources in Kish Island, Southern Iran. Microbiol Insights 8(Suppl 1):1–6PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  57. Niyyati M, Mafi M, Haghighi A, Hakemi Vala M (2015b) Occurrence of potentially pathogenic bacterial-endosymbionts in Acanthamoeba Spp. Iran J Parasitol 10(2):181–188PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  58. Niyyati M, Lasjerdi Z, Zarein-Dolab S, Nazar M, Behniafar H, Mahmoudi MR et al (2015c) Morphological and molecular survey of naegleria spp. in water bodies used for recreational purposes in Rasht city, Northern Iran. Iran J Parasitol 10(4):523–529PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  59. Niyyati M, Karamati SA, Lorenzo Morales J, Lasjerdi Z (2016a) Isolation of Balamuthia mandrillaris from soil samples in North-Western Iran. Parasitol Res 115(2):541–545CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Niyyati M, Saberi R, Latifi A, Lasjerdi Z (2016b) Distribution of acanthamoeba genotypes isolated from recreational and therapeutic geothermal water sources in Southwestern Iran. Environ Health Insights 10:69–74CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  61. Okude M, Matsuo J, Nakamura S, Kawaguchi K, Hayashi Y, Sakai H et al (2012) Environmental chlamydiae alter the growth speed and motility of host acanthamoebae. Microbes Environ 27(4):423–429CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  62. Ondriska F, Mrva M, Lichvar M, Ziak P, Murgasova Z, Nohynkova E (2004) First cases of Acanthamoeba keratitis in Slovakia. Ann Agric Environ Med 11(2):335–341PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Onichandran S, Kumar T, Salibay CC, Dungca JZ, Tabo HA, Tabo N et al (2014) Waterborne parasites: a current status from the Philippines. Parasit Vectors 7:244CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  64. Page FC (1988) A new key to freshwater and soil gymnamoebae: with instructions for culture. Freshwater Biological Association, Ambleside, pp 95–96Google Scholar
  65. Rahdar M, Niyyati M, Salehi M, Feghhi M, Makvandi M, Pourmehdi M et al (2012) Isolation and genotyping of acanthamoeba strains from environmental sources in Ahvaz city, Khuzestan province, southern Iran. Iran J Parasitol 7(4):22–26PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  66. Ramirez E, Robles E, Martinez B, Ayala R, Sainz G, Martinez ME et al (2014) Distribution of free-living amoebae in a treatment system of textile industrial wastewater. Exp Parasitol 145(Suppl):S34–S38CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Rasti S, Asadi MA, Iranshahi L, Hooshyar H, Gilasi HR, Zahiri A (2011) Evaluation of parasitic and fungal contamination and physicochemical parameters of indoor public swimming pools in Kashan during 2008-9. KAUMS J (FEYZ) 15(1):74–80Google Scholar
  68. Retana-Moreira L, Abrahams-Sandi E, Castro-Artavia E, Fernandez-Sanchez A, Castro-Castillo A, Reyes-Batlle M et al (2015) Isolation and molecular characterization of acanthamoeba strains from dental units in Costa Rica. J Eukaryot Microbiol 62(6):733–736CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Rezaeian M, Niyyati M, Farnia S, Motevalli Haghi A (2008) Isolation of Acanthamoeba spp. from different environmental sources. Iran J Parasitol 3(1):44–47Google Scholar
  70. Rezaian M, Bagheri F, Farnia S, Babai Z (2003) Isolation of pathogenic amoeba (naegleria and acanthameoba) from water sources and margin soils of rivers and lakes in Kazerun. J School Public Health Inst Public Health Res 1(3):41–48Google Scholar
  71. Rivera F, Galvan M, Robles E, Leal P, Gonzalez L, Lacy AM (1981) Bottled mineral waters polluted by protozoa in Mexico. J Protozool 28(1):54–56CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Salehi M (2014) Acanthamoeba Strains genotypes prevalence in water Sources in Bojnurd City: Short Communication. J Birjand Univ Med Sci 21(2):260–266Google Scholar
  73. Seal DV II, Shoff M, Rogerson A, Kessler K, Schatz S (2006) Prevalence of acanthamoeba and other naked amoebae in South Florida tap water. Investig Ophthalmol Vis Sci 47(13):2409Google Scholar
  74. Shokri A, Sarvi S, Daryani A, Sharif M (2016) Isolation and Genotyping of Acanthamoeba spp. as Neglected Parasites in North of Iran. Korean J Parasitol 54(4):447–453CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  75. Solgi R, Niyyati M, Haghighi A, Mojarad EN (2012a) Occurrence of thermotolerant Hartmannella vermiformis and Naegleria spp. in hot springs of Ardebil Province, Northwest Iran. Iran J Parasitol 7(2):47–52PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  76. Solgi R, Niyyati M, Haghighi A, Taghipour N, Tabaei SJ, Eftekhar M et al (2012b) Thermotolerant Acanthamoeba spp. isolated from therapeutic hot springs in Northwestern Iran. J Water Health 10(4):650–656CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Stapleton F, Ozkan J, Jalbert I, Holden BA, Petsoglou C, McClellan K (2009) Contact lens-related acanthamoeba keratitis. Optom Vis Sci 86(10):E1196–E1201CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Thomas V, Loret JF, Jousset M, Greub G (2008) Biodiversity of amoebae and amoebae-resisting bacteria in a drinking water treatment plant. Environ Microbiol 10(10):2728–2745CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Trabelsi H, Dendana F, Sellami A, Sellami H, Cheikhrouhou F, Neji S et al (2012) Pathogenic free-living amoebae: epidemiology and clinical review. Pathol Biol (Paris) 60(6):399–405CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Visvesvara GS, Moura H, Schuster FL (2007) Pathogenic and opportunistic free-living amoebae: Acanthamoeba spp., Balamuthia mandrillaris, Naegleria fowleri, and Sappinia diploidea. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 50(1):1–26CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Winck MA, Caumo K, Rott MB (2011) Prevalence of acanthamoeba from tap water in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Curr Microbiol 63(5):464–469CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Yousuf FA, Siddiqui R, Subhani F, Khan NA (2013) Status of free-living amoebae (Acanthamoeba spp., Naegleria fowleri, Balamuthia mandrillaris) in drinking water supplies in Karachi, Pakistan. J Water Health 11(2):371–375CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Zeybek Z, Binay AR (2014) Growth ability of Gram negative bacteria in free-living amoebae. Exp Parasitol 145(Suppl):S121–S126CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Indian Society for Parasitology 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ehsan Saburi
    • 1
  • Toktam Rajaii
    • 2
  • Asma Behdari
    • 3
  • Mohammad Hasan Kohansal
    • 2
  • Hossein Vazini
    • 4
  1. 1.Molecular Medicine and Genetics DepartmentZanjan University of Medical SciencesZanjanIran
  2. 2.Parasitology and Mycology DepartmentZanjan University of Medical SciencesZanjanIran
  3. 3.Microbiology TendencyAzad University of Medical Sciences-Zanjan BranchZanjanIran
  4. 4.Nursing Department, Basic Sciences Faculty, Hamedan BranchIslamic Azad UniversityHamedanIran

Personalised recommendations