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Journal of Parasitic Diseases

, Volume 41, Issue 4, pp 919–928 | Cite as

Free-living amoebae in the water resources of Iran: a systematic review

  • Ehsan Saburi
  • Toktam Rajaii
  • Asma Behdari
  • Mohammad Hasan Kohansal
  • Hossein Vazini
Review Article

Abstract

Free-living amoebae (FLA) are a group of protozoa with the capabilities of growth in the environment and invasion to the human body which have been isolated from different water sources. Acanthamoeba, Naegleria, and Balamuthia are the most important FLA. These cause a variety of severe complications of eye and central nervous system. Despite the fact that various studies have demonstrated the prevalence of FLA in different parts of Iran, there is no comprehensive evaluation and conclusion regarding the pollution of various water sources in Iran. This review was carried out to achieve the prevalence pattern of FLA in water resources across Iran to design appropriate health strategies. For this purpose, 8 online databases in English and Persian and also graduate thesis and national parasitology congresses were studied. The key words such as “free living amoebae”, “Acanthamoeba”, “Naegleria”, “Hartmannella”, “Balamuthia”, “Sappinia”, “Vermamoebae”, “Valkampfia”, “water resources”, “water” and “Iran” were used to search articles between 1990 to 2017. From a total of 236 articles found, 38 reliable articles were included in the study. From the total number of investigated studies, the estimated prevalence was obtained as 36% among 2430 samples. Although Acanthamoeba prevalence has been considered as a priority, most kinds of free-living amoebae were found in all kinds of water resources. Due to the lack of free-living amoebae prevalence in more than a quarter of the Iranian provinces, more studies are recommended to achieve a better perspective to make comprehensive decisions to improve the hygiene of water resources.

Keywords

Free living Amoeba Water sources Iran Systematic review 

Abbreviation

AK

Amoebic keratitis

PCR

Polymerase chain reaction

FLA

Free living amoeba

GAE

Granulomatous amoebic encephalitis

NNA

Non-nutrient agar

Notes

Acknowledgements

We would like to thank Dr. Ali Reza Esmaeli for helpful comments on the manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict to interest

All the authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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Copyright information

© Indian Society for Parasitology 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ehsan Saburi
    • 1
  • Toktam Rajaii
    • 2
  • Asma Behdari
    • 3
  • Mohammad Hasan Kohansal
    • 2
  • Hossein Vazini
    • 4
  1. 1.Molecular Medicine and Genetics DepartmentZanjan University of Medical SciencesZanjanIran
  2. 2.Parasitology and Mycology DepartmentZanjan University of Medical SciencesZanjanIran
  3. 3.Microbiology TendencyAzad University of Medical Sciences-Zanjan BranchZanjanIran
  4. 4.Nursing Department, Basic Sciences Faculty, Hamedan BranchIslamic Azad UniversityHamedanIran

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