Journal of Parasitic Diseases

, Volume 41, Issue 4, pp 1114–1122 | Cite as

Spatio-temporal analysis of cutaneous leishmaniasis using geographic information system among Iranian Army Units and its comparison with the general population of Iran during 2005–2014

  • Reza Pakzad
  • Arasb Dabbagh-Moghaddam
  • Mehdi Mohebali
  • Saeid Safiri
  • Mohammad BaratiEmail author
Original Article


To investigate the time trend and distribution of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Iranian Army Units (IAUs) and general population (GP). with using census, Data on CL incidence in IAUs (from AJA University of Medical Sciences) and GP (from Ministry of Health) during 2005–2014 were extracted and entered into the GIS software. Cochran–Armitage test, choropleth map, hot-spot analysis and high/low clustering analysis were used to determine time trend, distribution of disease, hot-spots, and possible abnormal clustering, respectively. The number of infected individuals in IAUs and GP were 6533 and 153,499 respectively (with incidence rates of 143.68 per 100,000 and 25.86 per 100,000, respectively). Time trend analysis revealed the departure from linear trend for the incidence in IAUs (p < 0.001), but no such time trend was found in GP. According to choropleth maps; in IAUs, Khozestan from southwest, Esfahan from central and Kermanshah from west parts of Iran and among GP; Fars, Yazd, and Kerman in southern-east of Iran showed a high incidence rates. In IAUs, Esfahan and Khuzestan provinces was hot-spots of CL (p < 0.05), but in GP, provinces like Fars and Khorasan-shomali was hot-spots (p < 0.05). No clustering pattern of disease was observed in either study populations. Observed spatiotemporal variability in CL among IAUs and GP warrants proper health programs particularly to Khozestan and Esfahan in IAUs and Fars and Khorasan-shomali in GP are highly recommended.


Cutaneous leishmaniasis Army units Geographic information system Spatio-temporal analysis 



This article was part of a thesis entitled: “Spatial Modeling of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis among Iranian Army Units and its Comparison with the general population of Iran between 2005 and 2014, Using Geographic Information System” adopted by AJA University of Medical Sciences by Registration date 2014.

Authors’ contribution

Arasb Dabbagh-Moghaddam and Mehdi Mohebali: Data gathering, refinement of Data, Data entering. Saeid Safiri and Reza Pakzad: design of study, analysis of data, interpretation of result, Mohammad Barati: analysis of data, writing of manuscript. Arasb Dabbagh-Moghaddam and Mehdi Mohebali: edit and approve of final manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest



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Copyright information

© Indian Society for Parasitology 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Reza Pakzad
    • 1
  • Arasb Dabbagh-Moghaddam
    • 2
  • Mehdi Mohebali
    • 3
  • Saeid Safiri
    • 4
  • Mohammad Barati
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Infectious Diseases Research CenterAJA University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  2. 2.Department of Preventive MedicineAJA University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  3. 3.Department of Medical Parasitology and Mycology, School of Public HealthTehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  4. 4.Managerial Epidemiology Research Center, Department of Public Health, School of Nursing and MidwiferyMaragheh University of Medical SciencesMaraghehIran

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