Advertisement

Journal of Parasitic Diseases

, Volume 40, Issue 3, pp 855–859 | Cite as

IL-4 gene expression in adventitial layer (fibrous layer) of hepatic ovine and bovine hydatid cysts

  • Zahra Dorosti
  • Sepideh Tolouei
  • Hossein Khanahmad
  • Rasool Jafari
  • Fereshteh Jafaee
  • Seyedeh Marayam Sharafi
  • Hossein Yousofi Darani
Original Article

Abstract

Cystic Echinococcosis is a parasitic disease with cosmopolitan distribution caused by the tape worm Echinococcus granulosus. Fibrous layer is developed around the cyst as a host immune response reaction. The aim of this study was to evaluate the rate of IL-4 gene expression in fibrous layer of bovine and ovine hepatic hydatid cysts using quantitative technique of Real-Time PCR. In this descriptive study the samples of hydatid cyst fibrous layer were taken from 6 bovine and 6 ovine hepatic hydatid cysts. Samples of normal liver tissue close to the cyst were also taken as controls. Total RNA from each sample was extracted and then converted to cDNA. Afterward, the rate of IL-4 gene expression for each sample was evaluated using real-time PCR technique. Data were analyzed by REST software (version 2.0.13, 2009). In sheep the rate of IL-4 gene expression in the fibrous layer of hepatic hydatid cysts was 1.98 times more than the rate of IL4 gene expression in control samples, but the difference was not significant (P = 0.561). In cattle the rate of IL-4 gene expression in the fibrous layer of hepatic hydatid cysts was 9.84 times more than that of control samples which was statistically significant (P < 0.001). With high rate of IL4 expression especially in fibrous layer of bovine hydatid cyst, it can be concluded that this interleukin may play an important role in host parasite relationship.

Keywords

Hydatid cyst IL-4 Gene expression Real-Time PCR Fibrous layer 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to acknowledge Vice-chancellor of Research and Technology, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences for financial support of this work.

Conflict of interest

The authors have no conflict of interests.

References

  1. Allen J, Maizels R (1996) Immunology of human helminth infection. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 109:3–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Al-Qaoud KM, Abdel-Hafez SK (2008) The induction of T helper type 1 response by cytokine gene transfection protects mice against secondary hydatidosis. Parasitol Res 102:1151–1155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Anthony RM, Rutitzky LI, Urban JF, Stadecker MJ, Gause WC (2007) Protective immune mechanisms in helminth infection. Nat Rev Immunol 7:975–987CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Arai K-i, Lee F, Miyajima A, Miyatake S, Arai N, Yokota T (1990) Cytokines: coordinators of immune and inflammatory responses. Annu Rev Biochem 59:783–836CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Baz A, Ettlin GM, Dematteis S (2006) Complexity and function of cytokine responses in experimental infection by Echinococcus granulosus. Immunobiology 211:3–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Ben-Sasson S, Le Gros G, Conrad D, Finkelman F, Paul W (1990) IL-4 production by T cells from naive donors. IL-2 is required for IL-4 production. J Immunol 145:1127–1136Google Scholar
  7. Chen F, Liu Z, Wu W, Rozo C, Bowdridge S, Millman A, Van Rooijen N, Urban JF Jr, Wynn TA, Gause WC (2012) An essential role for TH2-type responses in limiting acute tissue damage during experimental helminth infection. Nat Med 18:260–266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Fauser S, Kern P (1997) T-lymphocyte cytokine mRNA expression in cystic echinococcosis. Acta Trop 64:35–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Finkelman FD, Holmes J, Katona IM, Urban JF Jr, Beckmann MP, Park LS, Schooley KA, Coffman RL, Mosmann TR, Paul WE (1990) Lymphokine control of in vivo immunoglobulin isotype selection. Annu Rev Immunol 8:303–333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Finkelman FD, Pearce EJ, Urban JF Jr, Sher A (1991) Regulation and biological function of helminth-induced cytokine responses. Parasitol Today 7:62–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Fraize M, Sarciron M, Azzouz S, Issaadi N, Bosquet G, Petavy A (2005) Immunogenicity of two Echinococcus granulosus antigens EgA31 and EgTrp in mice. Parasitol Res 96:113–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gallagher I, Nair MG, Zang X, Brombacher F, Mohrs M, Allison JP, Allen JE (2007) Alternative activation is an innate response to injury that requires CD4+ T cells to be sustained during chronic infection. J Immunol 179:3926–3936CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Goh YS, Henderson NC, Heredia JE, Eagle AR, Odegaard JI, Lehwald N, Nguyen KD, Sheppard D, Mukundan L, Locksley RM et al (2013) Eosinophils secrete IL-4 to facilitate liver regeneration. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 110:9914–9919CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Heredia JE, Mukundan L, Chen FM, Mueller AA, Deo RC, Locksley RM, Rando TA, Chawla A (2013) Type 2 innate signals stimulate fibro/adipogenic progenitors to facilitate muscle regeneration. Cell 153:376–388CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Himonas C, Frydas S, Antoniadol-Sotiriadou K (1987) The fertility of hydatid cysts in food animals in Greece. In: Helminth Zoonoses. Springer, pp 12–21Google Scholar
  16. Jeong H-J, Jeong HJ, Chung HS, Kim YH, Moon BS, Sung KK, Bai SJ, Cho KH, Kim YK, Hong SH, Shin T, Kim HM (2004) Differential regulation by Seogak Jihwang-Tang on cytokines production in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from the cerebral infarction patients presenting with altered consciousness. J Ethnopharmacol 94:289–294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Lange AM, Yutanawiboonchai W, Scott P, Abraham D (1994) IL-4-and IL-5-dependent protective immunity to Onchocerca volvulus infective larvae in BALB/cBYJ mice. J Immunology 153:205–211Google Scholar
  18. Maggi E (1998) The TH1/TH2 paradigm in allergy. Immunotechnology 3:233–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. McManus D, Bryant C (1995) Biochemistry, physiology and molecular biology of Echinococcus Echinococcus and hydatid disease. CAB International, Wallingford, pp 135–181Google Scholar
  20. McManus DP, Zhang W, Li J, Bartley PB (2003) Echinococcosis Lancet 362:1295–1304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Mosmann TR, Sad S (1996) The expanding universe of T-cell subsets: Th1, Th2 and more. Immunol Today 17:138–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Mosmann TR, Cherwinski H, Bond MW, Giedlin MA, Coffman RL (1986) Two types of murine helper T cell clone. I. Definition according to profiles of lymphokine activities and secreted proteins. J Immunol 136:2348–2357Google Scholar
  23. Mueller TD, Zhang J-L, Sebald W, Duschl A (2002) Structure, binding, and antagonists in the IL-4/IL-13 receptor system. Biochim Biophys Acta 1592:237–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Murray PJ, Wynn TA (2011) Protective and pathogenic functions of macrophage subsets. Nat Rev Immunol 11:723–737CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Nelms K, Keegan AD, Zamorano J, Ryan JJ, Paul WE (1999) The IL-4 receptor: signaling mechanisms and biologic functions. Annu Rev Immunol 17:701–738CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Ortona E et al (2003) Molecular and immunological characterization of the C-terminal region of a new Echinococcus granulosus Heat Shock Protein 70. Parasite Immunol 25:119–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Palm NW, Rosenstein RK, Medzhitov R (2012) Allergic host defences. Nature 484:465–472CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Pearce EJ, MacDonald AS (2002) The immunobiology of schistosomiasis. Nat Rev Immunol 2:499–511CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Pearce EJ, Caspar P, Grzych J-M, Lewis FA, Sher A (1991) Downregulation of Th1 cytokine production accompanies induction of Th2 responses by a parasitic helminth, Schistosoma mansoni. J Exp Med 173:159–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Rigano R, Profumo E, Felice O, Ortona E, Teggi A, Siracusano A (1995a) In vitro production of cytokines by peripheral blood mononuclear cells from hydatid patients. Clin Exp Immunol 99:433–439CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Rigano R, Profumo E, Ioppolo S, Notargiacomo S, Ortona E, Teggi A, Siracusano A (1995b) Immunological markers indicating the effectiveness of pharmacological treatment in human hydatid disease. Clin Exp Immunol 102:281–285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Rigano R, Profumo E, Teggi A, Siracusano A (1996) Production of IL-5 and IL-6 by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from patients with Echinococcus granulosus infection. Clin Exp Immunol 105:456–459CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Rigano R, Profumo E, Ioppolo S, Notargiacomo S, Teggi A, Siracusano A (1999) Serum cytokine detection in the clinical follow up of patients with cystic echinococcosis. Clin Exp Immunol 115:503–507CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Rosenberg HF, Dyer KD, Foster PS (2012) Eosinophils: changing perspectives in health and disease. Nat Rev Immunol 13:9–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Sakamoto T, Cabrera PA (2003) Immunohistochemical observations on cellular response in unilocular hydatid lesions and lymph nodes of cattle. Acta Trop 85:271–279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Vuitton DA (2003) The ambiguous role of immunity in echinococcosis: protection of the host or of the parasite? Acta Trop 85:119–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Zhang W, McManus DP (2006) Recent advances in the immunology and diagnosis of echinococcosis. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 47:24–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Zhang W, Li J, McManus DP (2003) Concepts in immunology and diagnosis of hydatid disease. Clin Microbiol Rev 16:18–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Zhang W, Ross AG, McManus DP (2008) Mechanisms of immunity in hydatid disease: implications for vaccine development. J Immunol 181:6679–6685CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Zhang W, Wen H, Li J, Lin R, McManus DP (2011) Immunology and immunodiagnosis of cystic echinococcosis: an update. Clin Dev Immunol 2012:101895Google Scholar
  41. Zhang W, Li J, Lin R, Wen H, McManus DP (2012) recent advances in the immunology and serological diagnosis of echinococcosis. In: Al-Moslih M (ed) Serological diagnosis of certain human, animal and plant diseases. InTech, RijekaGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Indian Society for Parasitology 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Zahra Dorosti
    • 1
  • Sepideh Tolouei
    • 1
  • Hossein Khanahmad
    • 2
  • Rasool Jafari
    • 1
  • Fereshteh Jafaee
    • 1
  • Seyedeh Marayam Sharafi
    • 3
  • Hossein Yousofi Darani
    • 1
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Parasitology and Mycology, School of MedicineIsfahan University of Medical SciencesIsfahanIran
  2. 2.Department of Genetics and Molecular Biology, School of MedicineIsfahan University of Medical ScienceIsfahanIran
  3. 3.Infectious and Tropical Diseases Research CenterIsfahan University of Medical SciencesIsfahanIran

Personalised recommendations