Journal of Parasitic Diseases

, Volume 40, Issue 3, pp 823–832 | Cite as

Effect of Lactobacillus sporogenes (probiotic) on certain parasitological and molecular aspects in Schistosoma mansoni infected mice

  • Azza H. Mohamed
  • Gamalat Y. Osman
  • Mohammed E. M. Zowail
  • Hanaa M. I. El-EsawyEmail author
Original Article


The prospective effects of Lactobacillus sporogenes (probiotics) and/or praziquantel (PZQ) treatment on some parasitological, histological and molecular aspects in Schistosoma mansoni infected mice were studied. The present data recorded that combination between PZQ (300 mg/Kg one dose 7 weeks post infection) and L. sporogenes (12.5 million spore/mice/week for 8 weeks from the first day of infection) reduced worm and ova count. Also, oogram patterns in liver and intestine recorded that treatment with L. sporogenes alone increase number of dead eggs especially in intestine. Histological observations showed significant (P < 0.05) reduction in the mean values of granuloma diameters in liver and intestine in infected mice groups treated with PZQ and/or L. sporogenes. Single strand breaks (comet assay) showed increase in number of damaged and strong damaged lymphocyte cells in mice infected with S. mansoni and infected treated with PZQ while L. sporogenes administration reduced DNA damage. Flow cytometry also confirmed role of L. sporogenes in reducing significantly DNA damage according to determination of cell cycle analysis apoptosis. It can be concluded that administration of L. sporogenes accompanied with PZQ treatment ameliorates the hepatic and intestinal damage caused by S. mansoni infection.

Graphical Abstract


Schistosoma mansoni PZQ Lactobacillussporogenes Comet assay Flow cytometry 


  1. Abdel-Salam AM, Ammar N, Abdel-Hamid AZ (2008) Effectiveness of probiotic labneh supplemented with garlic or onion oil against Schistosoma mansoni in infected mice. Int J Dairy Sci 3(2):97–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bautista-Garfias CR, Ixta-Rodríguez O, Martínez-Gómez F, Lopez MG, Aguilar-Figueroa BR (2001) Effect of viable or dead Lactobacillus casei organisms administered orally to mice on resistance against Trichinella spiralis infection. Parasite 8(2):S226–S228CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Benson A, Pifer R, Behrendt CL, Hooper LV, Yarovinsky F (2009) Gut commensal bacteria direct a protective immune response against Toxoplasma gondii. Cell Host Microbe 6(2):187–196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Boros DL, Tombord R, Warren KS (1977) Introduction of granulomatous and elicitation of cutaneous hypersensitivity by partially purified SEA of Simandin. J Immunol 118:373–376PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Botros SS, Bennett JL (2007) Praziquantel resistance. Expert Opin Drug Discov 2(Suppl. 1):S35–S40CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Caffrey CR (2007) Chemotherapy of schistosomiasis: present and future. Curr Opin Chem Biol 11:433–439CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Chaiworaporn R, Maneerat Y, Rojekittikhun W, Ramasootal P, Janecharut T, Matsuda H, Kitikoon V (2005) Therapeutic effect of subcurative dose Praziquantel on Schistosoma mansoni infected mice and resistance to challenge infection after treatment Southeast Asian. J Trop Med Public Health 36:846–852Google Scholar
  8. Cheever AW (1969) Quantitative comparison of the intensity of Schistosoma mansoni—infections in man and experimental animals. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 63:781–795CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Chen L, Rao KV, He YX, Ramaswamy K (2002) Skin-stage schistosomula of Schistosoma mansoni produce an apoptosis-inducing factor that can cause apoptosis of T cells. J Biol Chem 277:34329–34335CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. Cohen JJ, Al- Rubeai M (1995) Apoptosis-targeted therapies the next big thing in biotechnology? Trends biotechnol 13:281–283CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. De Moreno de Leblanc A, Perdigón G (2010) The application of probiotic fermented milks in cancer and intestinal inflammation. Proc Nutr Soc 69(3):421–428CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. De Vecchi E, Drago L (2006) Lactobacillus Sporogenes or Bacillus Coagulans: misidentification or mislabelling? Int J Probiot Prebiot 1:3–10Google Scholar
  13. Dean PN, Jett JH (1974) Mathematical analysis of DNA distributions derived from flow microfluorometry. J Cell Biol 60:523–527CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. Dell Villar LP, Burguillo FJ, Lopez-Aban J, Muro A (2012) Systematic review and meta-analysis of artemisinin based therapies for the treatment and prevention of schistosomiasis. PLoS One 7(9):e45867CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Duvall RH, De witt WB (1969) An improved perfusion technique for recovering adult schistosomes from laboratory animals. Am J Trop Med Hyg 16:438–486CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Federica B, David DC, Serena C, Stefano DA (2012) Interactions between parasites and microbial communities in the human gut. Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2:141Google Scholar
  17. Fenwick A, Webster JP (2006) Schistosomiasis: challenges for control, treatment and drug resistance. Curr Opin Infect Dis 19:577–582CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Ghoneim HM, Demian SR, Heshmat MG, Ismail NS, El-Sayed LH (2008) Activation-induced apoptosis in peripheral blood mononuclear cells during hepatosplenic Schistosoma mansoni infections. Egypt J Immunol 15(2):63–72PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Giboda M, Smith JM (1994) Schistosoma mansoni eggs as a target for praziquantel: efficacy of oral application in mice. J Trop Med Hyg 97(2):98–102PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Gnanasekar M, Salunkhe AM, Mallia AK, He YX, Kalyanasundaram M (2009) praziquantel affects the regulatory myosin light chain of Schistosoma mansoni. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 53(3):1054–1060CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Harris HF (1990) On the rapid conversion of haematoxylin into haematin staining reaction. J Appl Microsc lab Methods 3:777Google Scholar
  22. Hassab El-Nabi SE (1996) The anti-genotoxic effect of propolies and cloves on human human lymphocytes culture treated with lead nitrate as a heavy metal. J Union Arab Biol Zool 5(A):479–498Google Scholar
  23. Hassab El-Nabi SE, Sallam F (2002) The protective effect of ellagic acid against the mutagenic portal of berelex as one of plant growth regulator hormones using different mutagenic tests. J Egypt Ger Soc Zool 37(C):77–98Google Scholar
  24. Kamel IA, Cheever AW, Elwi AM, Mosimann JE, Danner R (1977) Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium infections in Egypt: technique for recovery of worms at necropsy. Am J Trop Med Hyg 26:696–701CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Khambualai O, Yamauchi K, Ruttanavut J, Incharoen T, Jun Kashimura J (2010) Effect of sugar cane extract, commercial probiotic and their mixture on growth performance and intestinal histology in broiler chickens. Am J Anim Vet Sci 5(2):132–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Lin PW, Nasr TR, Berardinelli AJ, Kumar A, Neish AS (2008) The probiotic Lactobacillus GG may augment intestinal host defense by regulating apoptosis and promoting cytoprotective responses in the developing murine gut. Pediatr Res 64(5):511–516CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. Morsy GH (2009) Parasitological and histo-pathological studies on schistosomiasis mansoni infected mice and treated with praziquatel and/or oltipraz. J Egypt Soc Parasitol 39(2):687–701PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Pearce EJ (2005) Priming the immune response by schistosome eggs. Parasite Immunol 27:265–270CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Pelicano ERL, Souza PA, Souza HBA, Figueiredo DF, Boiago MM, Carvalho SR, Bordon VF (2005) Intestinal mucosa development in broiler chickens fed natural growth promoters. Braz J Poult Sci 1516-635X:221–229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Pellegrino J, Oliveria CA, Faria J, Cunhan A (1962) New approach to the screening of drugs in experimental S. mansoni in mice. Am J Trop Med Hyg 11:201–215CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Peters PA, Warren KS (1969) A rapid method of infecting mice and other laboratory animals with Schistosoma mansoni: subcutaneous injection. J Parasitol 55:558CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Singh NP, Mccoy MT, Tice RR, Schneider EL (1988) A simple technique for quantification of low levels of DNA damage in individual cells. Exp Cell Res 175:184–191CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Son VM, Chang CC, Wu MC, Guu YK, Chiu CH, Cheng W (2009) Dietary administration of the Probiotic, Lactobacillus plantarum, enhanced the growth, innate immune responses, and disease resistance of the grouper Epinephelus coioides. Fish Shellfish Immunol 26(5):691–698CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Tallima H, El-Ridi R (2007) Praziquantel binds Schistosoma mansoni adult worm actin. Int J Antimicrob Agents 29:570–575CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Travers MA, Florent I, Kohl L, Grellier P (2011) Probiotics for the control of parasites: an overview. J Parasitol Res 610769:11Google Scholar
  36. Tribukait B, Moberger G, Zetterberg A (1975) Methodological aspects of rapid-flow cytoflurometry for DNA analysis of human urinary bladder cells. In: Pulse-cytophotometry Part 1, p 50–60Google Scholar
  37. Villena J, Salva S, Agüero G, Alvarez S (2011) Immunomodulatory and protective effect of probiotic Lactobacillus casei against Candida albicans infection in malnourished mice. Microbiol Immunol 55(6):434–445CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. W H O (2013) Word Health Organization, Geneva. Epidemiological Record No. 8, 88:81–88Google Scholar
  39. Ya T, Zhang Q, Chu F, Merritt J, Bilige M (2008) Immunological evaluation of Lactobacillus casei Zhang: a newly isolated strain from koumiss in Inner Mongolia, China. BMC Immunol 9:68–76CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Indian Society for Parasitology 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Azza H. Mohamed
    • 1
  • Gamalat Y. Osman
    • 1
  • Mohammed E. M. Zowail
    • 2
  • Hanaa M. I. El-Esawy
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Zoology Department, Faculty of ScienceMenoufia UniversityShebien El-KomEgypt
  2. 2.Zoology Department, Faculty of ScienceBenha UniversityBenhaEgypt

Personalised recommendations