, Volume 11, Issue 2, pp 925–933 | Cite as

Sorption Properties of Organo Modified Montmorillonite Clay for the Reclamation of Chromium (VI) from Waste Water

  • W. Susan Jemima
  • P. Magesan
  • P. Chiranjeevi
  • M. J. UmapathyEmail author
Original Paper


The natural Montmorillonite (Mt) clay was modified with three newly synthesized cationic surfactants such as 2-(dodecanoyloxy)-N,Nbis(2-hydroxyethyl)-N(oxiran-2-ylmethyl)ethane-1-ammonium chloride, 2-hydroxy- N- (2-hydroxyethyl) - N (oxiran-2-ylmethyl)-N-(2-(tetradecanoyloxy) ethyl) ethane-1-ammonium chloride and 2-hydroxy- N- (2-hydroxyethyl)-N-(oxiran-2-ylmethyl)-N- palmitoyloxy)ethyl) ethane-1-ammonium chloride to get organo OMt-I, OMt-II and OMt- III respectively. The three modified clays were characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), Thermo gravimetric Analysis (TGA), X - Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) techniques. The three modified OMts were utilized to reclaim Cr (VI) from wastewater and batch adsorption studies were conducted with various operational parameters such as initial Cr (VI) concentration, pH, amount of adsorbent dosage and agitation rate. The effect of pH on the adsorption of Cr (VI) indicates that the adsorption was favorable in the pH range of 6. As the amount of adsorbent dosage increases, the efficiency in the removal of Cr (VI) ions increases. Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm best fitted with the experimental isotherm data. The results show that the modified Mt has a good affinity toward the reclamation of Cr (VI) ion and the degree of the efficacy was in the order of the surfactant modified OMt III > OMt II > OMt I. This can be attributed to the increasing hydrophobic chain length of cationic surfactants.


Organo modified montmorillionite Adsorption isotherm Reclamation Heavy metal Chromium (VI) 



: Montmorillonite Clay


: Sodium Hydroxide


: Hydrochloric acid


: Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy


: Scanning Electron Microscope


: X-ray Diffraction


: Initial concentration of herbicide (mg/L)


: Concentration of herbicide at equilibrium (mg/L)


: Amount of herbicide adsorbed at equilibrium (mg/L)


: Volume of aqueous solution in liters (L)


: Mass of the adsorbent (g)


: Amount of metal ions adsorbed per unit mass of adsorbent (mg/g)


: Measure of adsorption capacity of adsorbent (mg/g)


: Langmuir Constant which is a measure of energy adsorption


: Dimensionless Separation Factor


: Adsorption Intensity


: Universal Gas Constant (8.314 J/mol/K)


: Linear Regression Coefficient


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.



We thank the DST- FIST, Department of Chemistry, College of Engineering Guindy, Anna University, Chennai – 600 025, India for providing lab facilities. We offer our special thanks to University Grants Commission for the financial support to carry out the research work.


  1. 1.
    Sampa C, Basab C, Sekhar B (2008) On the removal of hexavalent chromium from wastewater: a comparative study between photocatalytic and chemical reduction process. In: Proceedings of the 6th WSEAS Int. Conference on ENVIRONMENT, ECOSYSTEMS and DEVELOPMENT (EED’08), pp 32–37Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Wang X, Pehkonen S, Ray A (2004) Removal of aqueous cr(VI) by a combination of photocatalytic reduction and coprecipitation. Ind Engg Chem Res 43:1665–1672CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Dalia MS, Drwesesh M (2006) Removal of cr6+ ions from wastewater in presence of quaternary ammonium salts. Egypt J Aqua Resc 32:1–11Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Das N, Vimala Karthika P. (2007) Biosorption of heavy metals- an overview. Ind J Biotec 7:159–169Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Gupta S, Bhathacharyya S (2005) Intercation of metal ions with clay: A case study with Pb(II). Appl Clay Sci 36:199–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bergaya F, Theng BK, Lagaly G (2006) Handbook of clay science, 1st edn. Elsevier Publication, Amsterdam, pp 289–309Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kaya A, Oren A (2005) Adsorption of Zn from aqueous solution to Bentonite. J Hardz Mat 125:183–189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Gupta, Bhattacharyya K (2012) Adsorption of heavy metals on kalinite and montmorillonite: a review. Phys Chem Chem 14:6698–6723CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Zheng S, Sun Z, Park Y, Ayoko G, Frost R (2013) Removal of bisphenol A from wastewater by Ca-montmorillonite modified with selected surfactants. Chem Eng J 234:416–433CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Krishna B, Murty DS, Jai Prakash B (2001) Surfactant –modified clay as adsorbent for chromate. App Clay Sci 20:65–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bedelean H, M ic neanu A, Burc S, Stanca M (2010) Removal of heavy metal ions from wastewaters using natural clays. Clay Miner 44:487–495CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hajjaji M, Beraa A (2015) Chromate adsorption on acid-treated and amines-modified clay. Appl Water Sci 5:73–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Mati P, Yamada K, Okamoto M, Ueda K, Okamoto K (2002) New polylactide/layered silicate nanocomposites: Role of organoclays. J Chem Mater 14:4654–4661CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Umapthy M, Lakshmi Narayanan V, Magesan P, Chiranjeevi p, Susan Jemima W (2016) Synthesis, characterization of biodegradable esterquat cationic surfactants and the evaluation of its physico-chemical properties. Tenside Surface. & deterGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Huang Y, Ma X, Liang G, Yan Y, Wang S (2008) Adsorption behavior of cr(VI) on organic-modified rectorite. Chem Eng J 138(1-3):187–193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Zhu L, Zhang L, Tang Y, Yang J (2013) Synthesis and Adsorption of Organo- montmorillonite/Poly (acrylic acid) Superabsorbent Composite. Poly Poly Comp 21.1:21–26Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Hua B, Luo H (2010) Adsorption of hexavalent chromium onto montmorillonite modified with hydroxyaluminum and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide. Appl Surf Sci 257:769–775CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Claudia R-L, Carlos E, Bryan B, Victor V, Fernando U (2013) A review on Cr(VI) adsorption using inorganic materials. Amer J Analy Chem 4:8–16Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Tahir, Naseem R (2007) Removal of cr(III) from tannery wastewater by adsorption onto bentonite clay. Sep Purif Technol 53:313–321CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Vinati A, Mahanty B, Behera S (2015) Clay and clay minerals for fluoride removal from water: a state of the art review. Appl Cay Sci 114:340–348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Setshedi KZ, Bhaumik M, Songwane S, Onyango Maurice S, Maity A (2013) Exfoliated polypyrrole-organically modified montmorillonite clay nanocomposite as a potential adsorbent for cr(VI) removal. Chem Eng J 222:186–197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Zamparas M, Gianni A, Stathi P, Deligiannakis Y, Zacharis I (2012) Removal of Phosphate from natural waters using innovative modified betonites. Appl Clay Sci 62-63:101–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Langmuir I (1997) The adsorption of gases on plane surfaces of glass, mica and platinum. J Amer Chem Sci 40:1361–1403CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Seliem M, Komarneni S, Byrne T, Cannon F, Shahien M, Khalil AA, Abd El-Gaid IM (2013) Removal of perchlorate by synthetic organosilicas and organoclay: kinetics and isotherm studies. Appl clay sci 71:21–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Brum MC, Capitaneo JL, Oliveira JF (2010) Removal of hexavalent chromium from water by adsorption onto surfactant modified montmorillonite. Miner Eng 23:270–272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Asem AA (2008) Adsorption of chromate and molybate by cetylpyridinium bentonite. App Clay Sci 41:73–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Yang F, Sun S, Chen X, Chang Y, Zha F, Lei Z (2016) Mg-al layerd double hydroxides modified clay adsorbents for efficient removal of pb2+, Cu 2+ and ni2+ from water. Appl Clay Sci 123:134–140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Zehhaf A, Benyoucef A, Quaijada C, Taleb S, Morallon E (2015) Algerian natural montmorillonite for arsenic (III) removal in aqueous solution. Int J Environ Sci Technol 12:595–602CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Madejova J (2003) FTIR Techniques in clay mineral studies, Vibrational Spectroscopy. Elsevier Publications, Amsterdam, pp 1–10Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Singla P, Mehta R, Upadhyay SN (2012) Clay modification by the use of organic cations. Green Sustain Chem 2:21–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Rajkiran R, Tiwari KC, Khilar UN (2008) Synthesis and characterization of novel organo-montmorillonites. App Clay Sci 38:203–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Borisover M, Bukhanovsky N, Lapides I, Yariv S (2012) The potential of thermally treated organobentonites to adsorb organic compounds. Appl Clay Sci 67:151–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Xie W, Gao Z, Pan W, Hunter D, Singh A, Vaia R (2001) Thermal degradation chemistry of alkyl quaternary ammonium MMT. Chem Mater 13:2979–2990CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Chen K, Vyazovkin S (2006) Mechanistic differences in degradation of polystyrene and poly styrene-clay nanocomposite: Thermal and thermo-oxidative degradation. J Macromolec Chem Phys 207:587–595CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Vishnu Mahes K, Narasimha Murthy H, Kumaraswamy E, Raghavendra Sridhar R, Krishna M, Niranjan S (2011) Synthesis and characterization of organomodified na-MMT using cation and anion surfactants. Front Chem China 6:153–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Li Y, Ishida H (2005) A study of morphology and intercalation kinetics of polystyrene-organoclay nanocomposites. Macromolec 38:6513–6519CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Xi Y, Mallavarapu M, Naidu R (2010) Preparation, characterization of surfactants modified clay minerals and nitrate adsorption. App Clay Sci 48:92–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Uddin F (2008) Clays, nanoclays, and montmorillonite minerals. Metall Mater Trans A 39:2804–2814CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Bhaumik M, Maity A, Srinivasu, Onyango M (2011) Enhanced removal of cr(VI) from aqueous solution using polypyrrole Fe3O4 magnetic nanocomposite. J Hazard Mater 190:381–390CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Arroyo M, Suarez R, Lopez-Manchado M, Fernandez J (2006) Relevant features of bentonite modification with a phosphonium salt. J Nanosci Nanotechn 7:2151–2154CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • W. Susan Jemima
    • 1
  • P. Magesan
    • 1
  • P. Chiranjeevi
    • 1
  • M. J. Umapathy
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Chemistry, College of Engineering GuindyAnna UniversityChennaiIndia

Personalised recommendations