Development and Characterization of Inorganic-Organic (Si-O-Al) Hybrid Geopolymeric Precursors via Solid State Method
- 49 Downloads
In this study, an innovative one part, solution free concept applied for the development of hybrid inorganic–organic geopolymeric precursors having Si-O-Al networks at the precursor stage only. For the process development, fly ash, sodium hydroxide along with rice husk were together mechano-chemically dry grinded for a period of 8, 16 and 24 hours and ‘organic in-organic hybrid geopolymeric precursors’ in solid powder form is obtained. Mechanico-chemically derived tailored organic in-organic hybrid geopolymeric precursors were characterized by different techniques like XRD, 29Si MAS NMR, 27Al MAS NMR, SEM and FESEM. XRD results revealed presence of inorganic phases and organic phase in organic in-organic hybrid geopolymeric precursors. 29Si MAS NMR spectra revealed partial transformation of tertracoordinated Si into pentacoordinated silica due to presence of organic moiety.27Al MAS NMR spectra indicated presence of peaks centered at δ 52 to δ 66 ppm confirmed the formation of geopolymeric precursors. Developed geopolymeric precursor overcome the process drawbacks of conventional geopolymerization process via solution chemistry by making it user friendly as geopolymer from these geopolymeric precursor is obtained by addition of water only unlike conventional geopolymerization process which involves addition of hazardous alkaline solution to aluminosilicate raw material like fly ash. Further, the development of geopolymeric precursor utilize two environmentally unsafe waste materials and resulted in development of material with improved mechanical properties.
KeywordsSolution free Mechanochemically Fly ash Silica Precursors
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
Authors of this paper are highly grateful to Director, CSIR-AMPRI for his kind support to carry out this work successfully. Authors are also thankful to CSIR-NCL, Pune, for providing NMR facility for this work. A special gratefulness to Dr.O.P.Modi, Mohd.Shafeeq and Deepak Kashyap for their help in performing X-ray diffraction and Scanning electron microscopic studies.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interests
Authors of this research declare no conflicts of interest.
- 4.Davidovits J (2011) Geopolymer chemistry and application. Published by, Institut Geopolimere, 16 rue Galilee F-02100 Saint-Quentin France (ISBN: 9782951482050)Google Scholar
- 7.El-Gamal SMA, Selim FA (2017) Utilization of some industrial wastes for eco-friendly cement production. Sustain Mater Technol 12:9–17Google Scholar
- 9.Lizcano M, Gonzalez A, Basu S et al. (2010) Effects of water content and chemical composition on structural properties of alkaline activated metakaolin-based geopolymers. J Amer Ceram Soc, 1–9Google Scholar
- 18.Takahashi H (1959) Effects of dry grinding on kaolin minerals. II, Kibushi-clayGoogle Scholar
- 23.Intini G, Liberti L, Notarnicola M, Di Canio F (2009) Mechanochemical activation of coal fly ash for production of high strength cement. Chem Sustain Develop 17:557–561Google Scholar
- 24.Yazici S, Arel HS (2012) Effects of fly ash fineness on the mechanical properties of concrete. Sadhana Indian Aca Sci Part 37(3):389–403Google Scholar
- 25.Harmsen PHF, Huijgen WJJ, Berbudez Lopez LM, Bakker RRC (2010) Literature review of physical and chemical pretreatment process for lignocellulosic biomass. BioenergyGoogle Scholar
- 31.Devi J, Batra N, Kumari S (2011) Synthesis and characterization of novel organosilicon (IV) complexes with pyridine dicarboxylic acid and mercaptopuridinecarboxylic acid. Int J Res Chem Environ 1(2):50–56Google Scholar
- 33.Organosilane Technology in Coating Applications: Review and Perspectives, http://www.dowcorning.com/content/publishedlit/26-1402-01.pdf
- 35.Oscar J, Halla CJ, Robles J et al. (2006) Theoretical and experimental study on a spirocyclic diethyleneglycol silicon complex. J Mexican Chem Soc 50(4):184–195Google Scholar
- 37.Nasab GM, Golestanifard F, MacKenzie KJD (2014) The effect of the SiO2/Na2O ratio in the structural modification of metakaolin-based geopolymers studied by XRD, FTIR and MAS-NMR. J Ceram Sci Technol 05(03):185–192Google Scholar
- 38.Davidovits J (1999) In: Proc. 2nd Intern. Conf. “Geopolymere ’99”. St. QuentinGoogle Scholar
- 39.Davidovits J (2005) In: Proc. World Congress “Geopolymer 2005”. St. QuentinGoogle Scholar
- 40.Davidovits J (2008) Geopolymer chemistry application. Institute GeopolymerGoogle Scholar
- 41.Al Bakri AMM, Kamarudin H, Norazian MN, Ruzaidi CM, Zarina Y, Rafiza AR (2011) Microstructure studies on the effect of the alkaline activators ratio in preparation of fly ash-based geopolymer. In: International conference on chemistry and chemical process, Singapore, IPCBEE, vol 10Google Scholar
- 42.Liu Y, Yana C, Qiua X et al. (2015) Preparation of faujasite block from fly ash-based geopolymer via in-situ hydrothermal method. J Taiwan Inst Chem Eng. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtice.2015.07.01