Advertisement

Silicon

pp 1–9 | Cite as

Silicon Affects Rice Growth, Superoxide Dismutase Activity and Concentrations of Chlorophyll and Proline under Different Levels and Sources of Soil Salinity

  • Jahanshah Saleh
  • Nosratollah NajafiEmail author
  • Shahin Oustan
  • Kazem Ghasemi-Golezani
  • Naser Aliasghrzad
Original Paper
  • 15 Downloads

Abstract

Purpose

Silicon (Si) application shows beneficial effects on growth and salt tolerance of plants; however, its effects on the rice (Oryza sativa L. var. Hashemi) growth, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and concentrations of chlorophyll and proline have not been fully understood under different levels and sources of soil salinity.

Methods

In this research, the effects of four salinity levels (0.46, 2, 4, and 8 dS m−1), two salt compositions (NaCl and four-salt combination) and four Si rates (8, 100, 200 and 300 mg kg−1 soil) as silicic acid (H4SiO4) on rice growth characteristics and SOD activity were studied in a greenhouse. Salt composition included NaCl, Na2SO4, CaCl2 and MgSO4 at a molar ratio of 4:2:2:1. The experiment was arranged in a factorial framework in a completely randomized design with three replications.

Results

Increasing soil salinity level significantly decreased dry matter (about 40%), number of tillers (about 12%), leaf area (about 55%), concentrations of leaf chlorophyll (about 45%) and Si (about 40%), whereas caused a severe increase in proline concentration (more than 200%) and SOD enzyme activity (up to 65%). Deleterious effect of salinity on dry matter and leaf area as well as its stimulating influence on proline accumulation and SOD activity was more intense in NaCl-treated plants than those subjected to a combination of salts. Source of salinity had no significant effects on dry matter, number of tillers and chlorophyll concentration. Si treatment strongly enhanced these parameters, except for proline that declined in plants subjected to Si.

Conclusions

The suppressing effect of salinity on the rice growth characteristics can be alleviated by soil Si fertilization. The stimulating effects of soil Si fertilization on dry matter as well as chlorophyll concentration became more pronounced at the higher salinity levels. Consequently, when rice plants are to be grown in salt-affected soils, it is recommended to supply them with adequate Si.

Keywords

Dry matter Enzyme activity Leaf area Number of tillers Salt composition 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

Acknowledgements

This paper is published as a part of a research project supported by the Vice Chancellor for Research and Technology of University of Tabriz. The authors are grateful to the University of Tabriz for financial supports.

References

  1. 1.
    Abbas T, Balal RM, Shahid MA, Pervez MA, Ayyub CM, Aqueel MA, Javaid MM (2015) Silicon-induced alleviation of NaCl toxicity in okra (Abelmoschuse sculentus) is associated with enhanced photosynthesis, osmoprotectants and antioxidant metabolism. Acta Physiol Plant 37:1–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ali A, Basra SMA, Iqbal J, Hussain S, Subhani MN, Sarwar M, Ahmed M (2012) Augmenting the salt tolerance in wheat (Triticum aestivum) through exogenously applied silicon. Afr J Biotechnol 11:642–649Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Archibold OW (1995) Ecology of world vegetation. Chapman and Hall, LondonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Barker AV, Pilbeam DJ (2007) Handbook of plant nutrition. CRC Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bassu S, Ramegowda V, Kumar A, Pereira A (2016) Plant adaption to drought stress. F1000 Res 5:1554–1563CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bates LS, Waldren RP, Teare ID (1973) Rapid determination of free proline for water stress studies. Plant Soil 39:205–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bohn HL, McNeal BL, O'Connor GA (2001) Soil chemistry3rd edn. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Chen W, Yao X, Cai K, Chen L (2011) Silicon alleviates drought stress of rice plants by improving plant water status, photosynthesis and mineral nutrient absorption. Biol Trace Elem Res 142:67–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Coskun D, Britto DV, Huynh WQ, Kronzucker HJ (2016) The role of silicon in higher plants under salinity and drought stress. Front Plant Sci 7:1072–1083CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Cuong TX, Ullah H, Datta A, Hanh TC (2017) Effects of silicon-based fertilizer on growth, yield and nutrient uptake of rice in tropical zone of Vietnam. Rice Sci 24(5):283–290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Elliot CL, Synder GH (1991) Autoclave-induced digestion for the colorimetric determination of silicon in rice straw. J Agric Food Chem 39:1118–1119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Enteshari S, Alishavandi R, Delavar K (2011) Interactive effects of silicon and NaCl on some physiological and biochemical parameters in Borago officinalis L. Iranian J Plant Physiol 2:315–320Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Farooq MA, Saqib ZA, Akhtar J (2015) Silicon-mediated oxidative stress tolerance and genetic variability in rice (Oryza sativa L.) grown under combined stress of salinity and boron toxicity. Turk J Agric For 39:718–729CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Gee GW, Or D (2002) Particle-size analysis. In: Dane JH, Topp GC (eds) Methods of soil analysis. Part 4. Physical methods. Soil Science Society of America Book Series 5, SSSA, MadisonGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ghanbari Malidareh A, Kashani AG, Mobasser HR, Alavi V (2009) Effects of silicon application and nitrogen rates on N and Si concentration and yield of rice (Oryza sativa L.) in two water systems in north of Iran. World Appl Sci J 6:719–727Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Giannopolitis CN, Reis SK (1977) Superoxide dismutases. I. Occurrence in higher plants. Plant Physiol 59:309–314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ghosh B, Ali MN, Saikat G (2016) Response of rice under salinity stress: a review update. J Res Rice 4:167–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Grattan SR, Grieve CM (1999) Mineral nutrient acquisition and response by plants grown in saline environment. In: Pessarakli M (ed) Handbook of plant and crop stress. Marcel Dekker, NewYorkGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Gurmani AR, Bano A, Ullah N, Khan H, Jahangir M, Flowers TJ (2013) Exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) and silicon (Si) promote salinity tolerance by reducing sodium (Na+) transport and bypass flow in rice (Oryza sativa indica). Aust J Crop Sci 7:1219–1226Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Haby VA, Russelle MP, Skogley EO (1990) Testing soil for potassium, calcium and magnesium. In: Westerman RL (ed) Soil testing and plant analysis3rd edn. Soil Science Society of America, MadisonGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Hakim MA, Juraimi AS, Hanafi MM, Ismail MR, Rafii MY, Aslani F, Selamat A (2014) The effect of salinity on chlorophyll, proline and mineral nutrients in common weeds of coastal rice fields in Malaysia. J Environ Biol 35(5):855–864PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Hand MJ, Taffouo VD, Nouck AE, Nyemene KPJ, Tonfack LB, Meguekam TL, Youmbi E (2017) Effects of salt stress on plant growth, nutrient partitioning, chlorophyll content, leaf relative water content, accumulation of osmolytes and antioxidant compounds in pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) cultivars. Not Bot Horti Agrobo 45(2):481–490CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Haq TU, Akhtar J, Nawaz S, Ahmad R (2009) Morpho-physiological response of rice (Oryza sativa L.) varieties to salinity stress. Pak J Bot 41:2943–2956Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Heckman JR, Wolf AM (2009) Recommended soil and plant tests for silicon. In: Sims JT, Wolf AM (eds) Recommended Soil Testing Procedures for the Northeastern United States3rd ed Cooperative Bulletin No. 493 edn. University of Delaware Press, NewarkGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Joseph EA, Mohanan KV (2013) A study on the effect of salinity stress on the growth and yield of some native rice cultivars of Kerala state of India. Agric Forest Fish 2(3):141–150Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Kafi M, Nabati J, Masoumi A, ZareNehrgerdi M (2011) Effect of salinity and silicon application on oxidative damage of sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench]. Pak J Bot 43:2457–2462Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Lavinsky AO, Detmann KC, Reis JV, Avila RT, Sanglard ML, Pereira LF, Sanglard LMVP, Rodrigues FA, Araujo WL, DaMatta FM (2016) Silicon improves rice grain yield and photosynthesis specifically when supplied during the reproductive growth stage. J Plant Physiol 206:125–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Liang Y, Nikolic M, Belanger RR, Gong H, Song A (2015) Silicon in agriculture: from theory to practice. Springer, DordrechtCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Liang Y, Sun W, Zhu YG, Christie P (2007) Mechanisms of silicon-mediated alleviation of abiotic stresses in higher plants: a review. Environ Pollut 147:1–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Lindsay WL, Norvell WA (1978) Development of a DTPA test for zinc, iron, manganese and copper. Soil Sci Soc Am J 42:421–428CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Lu SG, Tang C, Rengel Z (2004) Combined effects of waterlogging and salinity on electrochemistry, water-soluble cations and water dispersible clay in soils with various salinity levels. Plant Soil 264:231–245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Luyckx M, Hausman JF, Lutts S, Guerriero G (2017) Silicon and plants: current knowledge and technological perspectives. Front Plant Sci 8:411–419CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Marschner H (1995) Mineral nutrition of higher plants2nd edn. Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Munns R (2002) Comparative physiology of salt and water stress. Plant Cell Environ 25:239–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Nanayakkara UN, Uddin W, Datnoff LE (2008) Application of silicon sources increases silicon accumulation in perennial ryegrass turf on two soil types. Plant Soil 303:83–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Negrao S, Schmockel SM, Tester M (2017) Evaluating physiological responses of plants to salinity stress. Ann Bot 119(1):1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Nelson DW, Sommers LE (1996) Total carbon, organic carbon and organic matter. In: Sparks DL et al (eds) Methods of soil analysis. Part 3, Chemical methods. Soil Science Society of America Book Series 5, SSSA, MadisonGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Netondo GW, Onyango JC, Beck E (2004) Sorghum and salinity: ІІ. Gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence of sorghum under salt stress. Crop Sci 44:806–811CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Olsen R, Cole C V, Watanabe F S, Dean L A (1954) Estimation of available phosphorus in soil by extraction with sodium bicarbonate. USDA Circ. 939 US Gover. Prin. Office, Washington DC.USAGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Orcutt DM, Nilsen ET (2000) The physiology of plants under stress, soil and biotic factors. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Radanielson AM, Gaydon DS, Li T, Angeles O, Roth CH (2018) Modeling salinity effect on rice growth and grain yield with ORYZA v3 and APSIM-Oryza. Eur J Agron (In Press) 100:44–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Richards L A (1969) Diagnosis and Improvement of Saline and Alkali Soils. US Salinity Laboratory Staff, Agricultural Handbook No 60. USDA, USAGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Rios JJ, Martinez-Bellesta MC, Ruiz JM, Blasco B, Carvajal M (2017) Silicon-mediated improvement in plant salinity tolerance: the role of Aquaporins. Front Plant Sci 8:948–957CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Saleh J, Maftoun M (2008) Interactive effects of NaCl levels and zinc sources and levels on the growth and chemical composition of rice. J Agric Sci Technol 10:325–336Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Saleh J, Najafi N, Oustan S, Aliasgharzad N, Ghassemi-Golezani K (2013) Changes in extractable Si, Fe and Mn as affected by silicon, salinity and waterlogging in a sandy loam soil. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal 44:1588–1598CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Saviozzi A, Cardelli R, Di Puccio R (2011) Impact of salinity on soil biological activities: a laboratory experiment. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal 42:358–367CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Sims DA, Gamon JA (2002) Relationships between leaf pigment concentration and spectral reflectance across a wide range of species, leaf structures and developmental stages. Remote Sens Environ 81:337–354CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Szollosi R (2014) Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and abiotic stress tolerance in plants: an overview. In: Ahmad P (ed) Oxidative damage to plants : antioxidant networks and signaling1st edn. Academic Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Tubana BS, Babu T, Datnoff LE (2016) A review of silicon in soils and plants and its role in US agriculture: history and future perspectives. Soil Sci 181:393–411Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Wang Y, Li J (2011) Branching in rice. Plant Biol 14:94–99Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Wang X, Wei Z, Liu D, Zhao G (2011) Effects of NaCl and silicon on activities of antioxidative enzymes in roots, shoots and leaves of alfalfa. Afr J Biotechnol 10(4):545–549Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Wu GQ, Wang SM (2012) Calcium regulates K+/Na+ homeostasis in rice (Oryza sativa L.) under saline conditions. Plant Soil Environ 58:121–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Yan N, Marschner P, Cao W, Zuo C, Qin W (2015) Influence of salinity and water content on soil microorganisms. Int Soil Water Cons Res 3(4):316–323CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Yeo AR, Flower TJ (1983) Varietal differences in the toxicity of Na ions in rice leaves. Physiol Plant 59:189–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Yunus Q, Zari M (2017) Effect of exogenous silicon on ion distribution of tomato plants under salt stress. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal 48(16):1843–1851CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Soil Science, Faculty of AgricultureUniversity of TabrizTabrizIran
  2. 2.Soil and Water Research DepartmentHormozgan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEOBandar-E-AbbasIran
  3. 3.Department of Plant Ecophysiology, Faculty of AgricultureUniversity of TabrizTabrizIran

Personalised recommendations