pp 1–11 | Cite as

A Novel Silane System for Amalgam Repair with Resin Composite: an in vitro Study

  • Xiao-Zhuang Jin
  • James Kit-Hon Tsoi
  • Jukka Pekka Matinlinna
Original Paper


The aim was to evaluate in vitro the feasibility of using three silane coupling agents/blends: (I) 1.0 vol % 3-acryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (ACPS), (II) a novel silane system: 1.0 vol % 3-acryloxypropyl trimethoxysilane + 0.5 vol % bis-1,2-(triethoxysilyl)-ethane (ACPS + BTSE), and (III) a novel silane system: 1.0 vol % 3-acryloxypropyl trimethoxysilane + 0.5 vol % bis[3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl]amine (ACPS + BTMA), as adhesion promoters on the repair of dental silver amalgam with a resin composite with respect to various artificial ageing conditions. Two hundred and forty flowable composite resin stubs were bonded to freshly prepared dental silver amalgam discs. The discs were silica-coated and silanized with the 3 silanes. Another 20 resin stubs were bonded to the amalgam surface without any silica-coating or treated with silica-coating only. Then, the specimens were randomly distributed into 8 sub-groups for initial (control), thermal cycling (1000, 3000 and 6000) and DI water storage (1 day, 1 week, 1 month and 3 months). Shear bond strength (SBS) test was measured using a universal testing machine with a 1 mm/min cross-head speed. Failure modes were classified and SEM images were obtained. Two-way ANOVA was used to detect statistical differences. The initial SBS of the control groups were (Mean/SD) 20.2 ± 3.3 MPa for ACPS only, 16.6 ± 3.9 MPa for ACPS + BTMA, and 19.5 ± 3.3 MPa for ACPS + BTSE. A decreasing trend of SBS was observed by using the current artificial ageing methods, and ACPS and ACPS + BTSE produced statistically higher bond strengths compared to ACPS + BTMA under thermal cycling (p<0.05). An acrylate silane alone or blended with a cross-linking silane may effectively promote bonding of a dental flowable resin composite to dental amalgam, which could be a new method to repair the restoration.


Silane coupling agent Silica-coating Shear bond strength test Amalgam repair Flowable resin composite Thermal cycling Water storage 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Anderson MH, McCoy RB (1993) Dent Clin North Am 37: 419Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Dodes JE (2001) J Am Dent Assoc 132:348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    van Noort R Introduction to Dental Materials 3rd ed., Philadelphia, USA: MosbyGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Darvell BW (2006) Materials Science for Dentistry. 8th ed., Hong Kong: B.W. DarvellGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Burke FJT, McHugh S, Hall AC, Randall RC, Widstrom E, Forss H (2003) Br Dent J 194:613CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Westcott A (1844) Am J Dent Sci IV:175Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Clinical Research Associates (2005) Clinicians’ Preferences 2005: survey data from 1652 random CRA Newsletter subscribers. CRA Newsletter 29:3Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Burke FJ (2004) J Dent 32:343CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Manhart J, Chen H, Hamm G, Hickel R (2004) Oper Dent 29: 481Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Gordan VV, Riley JL 3rd, Blaser PK, Mjor IA (2006) Oper Dent 31:418CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Murdoch-Kinch CA, McLean ME (2003) J Am Dent Assoc 134:87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ozcan M, Schoonbeek G, Gokce B, Comlekoglu E, Dundar M (2010) Oper Dent 35:655CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Demarco FF, Zanchi CH, Bueno M, Piva E (2007) Oper Dent 32:94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Plasmans PJ, Reukers EA (1993) Oper Dent 18:66Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Al-Jazairy YH (2001) J Prosthet Dent 85:396CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Matinlinna JP, Lassila LV, Kangasniemi I, Vallittu PK (2005) J Dent Res 84:360CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Matinlinna JP, Vallittu PK (2007) J Contemp Dent Pract 8:1Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Matinlinna JP, Lassila LV (2011) Dent Mater 27:273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Matinlinna JP, Lassila LV, Ozcan M, Yli-Urpo A, Vallittu PK (2004) Int J Prosthodont 17:155Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Moriguchi K, Utagawa S (2012) Silane: chemistry, applications and performance. Nova Science Publishers,IncorporatedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Matinlinna JP, Lassila LV, Vallittu PK (2007) Dent Mater 23:1173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Matinlinna JP, Choi AH, Tsoi JK (2013) Clin Oral Implants Res 24:290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Matinlinna JP, Lassila LV, Vallittu PK (2006) J Dent 34:436CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Matinlinna JP, Lassila LV, Vallittu PK (2006) J Dent 34:740CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Matinlinna J, Ozcan M, Lassila L, Kalk W, Vallittu P (2008) Acta Odontol Scand 66:250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Bayne SC, Thompson JY, Swift EJ Jr, Stamatiades P, Wilkerson M (1998) J Am Dent Assoc 129:567CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Attar N, Tam LE, McComb D (2003) J Can Dent Assoc 69:516Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Fortin D, Vargas MA (2000) J Am Dent Assoc 131 Suppl: 26SGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Attar N, Turgut MD, Güngör HC (2004), vol 29Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Leevailoj CCM, Matis BA, Moore BK, Platt JA (2001) Oper Dent 26:302Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Peutzfeldt A, Asmussen E (2002) Oper Dent 27:569Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Payne JH (1999) J Clin Pediatr Dent 23:123Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Ho GW, Matinlinna JP (2011) J Adhes Sci Technol 25:2671CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Poojari Y, Clarson SJ (2009) Chemical communications: 6834Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    3M-ESPE Rocatec Bonding Scientific Product ProfileGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Ebnesajjad S, Ebnesajjad CF Surface treatment of materials for adhesion bonding.New York, USA,William Andrew PubGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Matinlinna JP, Lassila LV, Vallittu PK (2007) Acta Odontol Scand 65:44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Puska M, Lassila L, Vallittu PK, Seppälä J, Matinlinna J (2009) J Adhes Sci Technol 23:991CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Emami N, Soderholm KJM (2003) Eur J Oral Sci 111:536CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Sobrinho LC, de Goes MF, Consani S, Sinhoreti MAC, Knowles JC (2000) J Mater Sci-Mater M 11:361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Piwowarczyk A, Lauer HC, Sorensen JA (2004) J Prosthet Dent 92:265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Matinlinna JP, Lassila LV, Kangasniemi I, Yli-Urpo A, Vallittu PK (2005) Dent Mater 21:287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Eldeniz AU, Erdemir A, Belli S (2005) J Endod 31:293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Roeters JJM, Shortall ACC, Opdam NJM (2005) Br Dent J 199:73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Uo M, Berglund A, Cardenas J, Pohl L, Watari F, Bergman M, Sjoberg S (2003) Dent Mater 19:639CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Ozcan M, Vallittu PK (2003) Dent Mater 19:725CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    McCabe JF, Walls A (2008) Applied dental materials, 9th ed. Blackwell PubGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Xiao-Zhuang Jin
    • 1
  • James Kit-Hon Tsoi
    • 1
  • Jukka Pekka Matinlinna
    • 1
  1. 1.Dental Materials Science, Faculty of DentistryThe University of Hong KongHong KongPeople’s Republic of China

Personalised recommendations