Effect of reductant type on the embedding direct reduction of beach titanomagnetite concentrate

  • Yong-qiang Zhao
  • Ti-chang SunEmail author
  • Hong-yu ZhaoEmail author
  • Chao Chen
  • Xiao-ping Wang


Iron and titanium were recovered from beach titanomagnetite (TTM) concentrate by embedding direct reduction and magnetic separation. The reduction products and the effects of the reductant type and reduction temperature on the reduction behavior were investigated. The results showed that the reduction of TTM concentrate was strongly related to the gasification reactivity of the reductant. Bitumite presented a better product index than wheat-straw biochar and coke, mainly because the gasification reactivity of bitumite was better than that of the other reductants. In addition, high temperatures were not beneficial to embedding direct reduction because of the emergence of a molten phase and iron-joined crystals, which in turn reduced the diffusion rate of the reducing gas and impeded the reduction reaction in the central area of the roasted briquette. The use of bitumite as the reductant at a C/Fe molar ratio of 1.4 and a reduction temperature of 1200°C for 120 min resulted in direct-reduction iron powder assaying 90.28wt% TFe and 0.91wt% TiO2 with an iron recovery of 91.83% and titanium concentrate assaying 46.01wt% TiO2 with a TiO2 recovery of 91.19%. Titanium existed mainly in the form of anosovite and ilmenite in the titanium concentrate.


beach titanomagnetite concentrate embedding direct reduction magnetic separation reductant reduction temperature 


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This work was financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 51474018 and 51674018).


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© University of Science and Technology Beijing and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Key Laboratory for High-Efficient Mining and Safety of Metal Mines, Ministry of EducationUniversity of Science and Technology BeijingBeijingChina
  2. 2.School of Civil and Resource EngineeringUniversity of Science and Technology BeijingBeijingChina

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