Advertisement

Relationship between the microstructure and properties of thermomechanically processed Fe−17Mn and Fe−17Mn−3Al steels

  • Renuprava Dalai
  • Siddhartha Das
  • Karabi DasEmail author
Article
  • 18 Downloads

Abstract

Two austenitic Mn steels (Fe−17Mn and Fe−17Mn−3Al (wt%, so as the follows)) were subjected to thermomechanical processing (TMP) consisting of forging followed by solutionization and hot rolling. The rolled samples were annealed at 650 and 800°C to relieve the internal stress and to induce recrystallization. The application of TMP and heat treatment to the Fe−17Mn/Fe−17Mn−3Al steels refined the austenite grain size from 169 μm in the as-solutionized state to 9–13 μm, resulting in a substantial increase in hardness from HV 213 to HV 410 for the Fe−17Mn steel and from HV 210 to HV 387 for the Fe−17Mn−3Al steel. The elastic modulus values, as evaluated by the nanoindentation technique, increased from (175 ± 11) to (220 ± 12) GPa and from (163 ± 15) to (205 ± 13) GPa for the Fe−17Mn and Fe−17Mn−3Al steels, respectively. The impact energy of the thermomechanically processed austenitic Mn steels was lower than that of the steels in their as-solutionized state. The addition of Al to the Fe−17Mn steel decreased the hardness and elastic modulus but increased the impact energy.

Keywords

austenitic manganese steel (AMS) thermomechanical processing (TMP) microstructure property hardness elastic modulus 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. [1]
    H.S. Avery, Austenitic Manganese Steel, Metals Handbook, American Society for Metals, USA, 1961, p. 834.Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    X.D. Du, G.D. Sun, Y.F. Wang, J.F. Wang, and H.Y. Yang, Abrasion behavior of high manganese steel under low impact energy and corrosive conditions, Adv. Tribol., 2009(2009), art. No. 685648.Google Scholar
  3. [3]
    A.K. Srivastava and K. Das, Microstructure and abrasive wear study of (Ti,W)C-reinforced high-manganese austenitic steel matrix composite, Mater. Lett., 62(2008), No. 24, p. 3947.Google Scholar
  4. [4]
    Y.F. Wang, C.M. Qiu, C.G. Lu, and L. Zhang, Effect of conventional cold rolling on wear-resisting performance of high manganese steel, Adv. Mater. Res., 284–286(2011), p. 1493.Google Scholar
  5. [5]
    J. Mendez, M. Ghoreshy, W.B.F. Mackay, T.J.N. Smith, and R.W. Smith, Weldability of austenitic manganese steel, Mater. Process. Technol., 153–154(2008), p. 596.Google Scholar
  6. [6]
    F.C. Zhang and T.Q. Lei, A study of friction-induced martensitic transformation for austenitic manganese steel, Wear, 212(1997), No. 2, p. 195.Google Scholar
  7. [7]
    S.R. Allahkaram, Causes of catastrophic failure of high Mn steel utilized as crusher overlaying shields, Int. J. Eng. Trans. B, 21(2008), No. 1, p. 55.Google Scholar
  8. [8]
    I. El-Mahallawi, R. Abdel-Karim, and A. Naguib, Evaluation of effect of chromium on wear performance of high manganese steel, Mater. Sci. Technol., 17(2001), No. 11, p. 1385.Google Scholar
  9. [9]
    E.G. Moghaddam, N. Varahram, and P. Davami, On the comparison of microstructural characteristics and mechanical properties of high-vanadium austenitic manganese steels with the Hadfield steel, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 532(2012), p. 260.Google Scholar
  10. [10]
    S.A. Torabi, K. Amini, and M. Naseri, Investigating the effect of manganese content on the properties of high manganese austenitic steels, Int. J. Adv. Des. Manuf. Technol., 10(2017), No. 1, p. 75.Google Scholar
  11. [11]
    D.S. Lu, Z.Y. Liu, W. Li, Z. Liao, H. Tian, and J.Z. Xian, Influence of carbon content on wear resistance and wear mechanism of Mn13Cr2 and Mn18Cr2 cast steels, China Foundary, 12(2015), No. 1, p. 39.Google Scholar
  12. [12]
    S.R. Ge, Q.L. Wang, and J.X. Wang, The impact wear-resistance enhancement mechanism of medium manganese steel and its applications in mining machines, Wear, 376–377(2017), p. 1097.Google Scholar
  13. [13]
    Y.K. Lee and J. Han, Current opinion in medium manganese steel, Mater. Sci. Technol., 31(2014), No. 7, p. 843.Google Scholar
  14. [14]
    J. Wang, Q.L. Wang, X. Zhang, and D.K. Zhang, Impact and rolling abrasive wear behavior and hardening mechanism for hot-rolled medium-manganese steel, J. Tribol., 140(2018), No. 3, p. 1.Google Scholar
  15. [15]
    H.T. Si, R.L. Xiong, F. Song, Y.H. Wen, and H.B. Peng, Wear resistance of austenitic steel Fe-17Mn-6Si-0.3C with high silicon and high manganese, Acta Metall. Sin. Engl. Lett., 27(2014), No. 2, p. 352.Google Scholar
  16. [16]
    Y.H. Wen, H.B. Peng, H.T. Si, R.L. Xiong, and D. Raabe, A novel high manganese austenitic steel with higher work hardening capacity and much lower impact deformation than Hadfield manganese steel, Mater. Des., 55(2014), p. 798.Google Scholar
  17. [17]
    C. Prasad, P. Bhuyan, C. Kaithwas, R. Saha, and S. Mandal, Microstructure engineering by dispersing nano-spheroid cementite in ultrafine-grained ferrite and its implications on strength-ductility relationship in high carbon steel, Mater. Des., 139(2018), p. 324.Google Scholar
  18. [18]
    D.H. Jeong, F. Gonzalez, G. Palumbo, K. Aust, and U. Erb, The effect of grain size on the wear properties of electrodeposited nanocrystalline nickel coatings, Scripta Mater., 44(2001), No. 3, p. 493.Google Scholar
  19. [19]
    T.A. El-Bitar and E.M. El-Banna, Improvement of austenitic Hadfield Mn-steel properties by thermomechanical processing, Can. Metall. Q., 39(2000), No. 3, p. 361.Google Scholar
  20. [20]
    A. Goldberg, O.A. Ruano, and O.D. Sherby, Development of ultrafine microstructures and superplasticity in Hadfield manganese steels, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 150(1992), No. 2, p. 187.Google Scholar
  21. [21]
    S. Kang, Y.S. Jung, J.H. Jun, and Y.K. Lee, Effects of recrystallization annealing temperature on carbide precipitation, microstructure, and mechanical properties in Fe-18Mn-0.6C-1.5 Al TWIP steel, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 527(2010), No. 3, p. 745.Google Scholar
  22. [22]
    B.K. Zuidema, D.K. Subramanyam, and W.C Leslie, The ef fect of aluminum on the work hardening and wear resistance of Hadfield manganese steel, Metall. Trans. A, 18(1987), No. 9, p. 1629.Google Scholar
  23. [23]
    R.W. Smith and W.B.F Mackay, Austenitic manganese steels-developments for heavy haul rail transportation, Can. Metall. Q., 42(2003), No. 3, p. 333.Google Scholar
  24. [24]
    K.M. Mussert, W.P. Vellinga, A. Bakker, and S. Van Der Zwaag, A nano-indentation study on the mechanical behaviour of the matrix material in an AA6061-Al2O3 MMC, J. Mater. Sci., 37(2002), No. 4, p. 789.Google Scholar
  25. [25]
    J.W. Leggoe, Determination of the elastic modulus of microscale ceramic particles via nanoindentation, J. Mater. Res., 19(2004), No. 8, p. 2437.Google Scholar
  26. [26]
    W.C. Oliver and G.M. Pharr, Measurement of hardness and elastic modulus by instrumented indentation: Advances in understanding and refinements to methodology, J. Mater. Res., 19(2004), No. 1, p. 3.Google Scholar
  27. [27]
    D.J. Shuman, A.L.M. Costa, and M.S. Andrade, Calculating the elastic modulus from nanoindentation and microindentation reload curves, Mater. Charact., 58(2007), No. 4, p. 380.Google Scholar
  28. [28]
    G.E. Dieter, Mechanical Metallurgy, McGraw Hill UK Ltd., New York, 1986, p. 280.Google Scholar
  29. [29]
    A. Helth, S. Pilz, T. Kirsten, L. Giebeler, J. Freudenberger, M. Calin, J. Eckert, and A. Gebert, Effect of thermomechanical processing on the mechanical biofunctionality of a low modulus Ti-40Nb alloy, J. Mech. Behav. Biomed. Mater., 65(2017), p. 137.Google Scholar
  30. [30]
    T. Otomo, H. Matsumoto, N. Nomura, and A. Chiba, Influence of cold-working and subsequent heat-treatment on Young’s modulus and strength of Co-Ni-Cr-Mo alloy, Mater. Trans., 51(2010), No. 3, p. 434.Google Scholar
  31. [31]
    A. Torrents, H. Yang, and F.A. Mohamed, Effect of annealing on hardness and the modulus of elasticity in bulk nanocrystalline nickel, Metall. Mater. Trans. A, 41(2010), No. 3, p. 621.Google Scholar
  32. [32]
    S. Reeh, D. Music, T. Gebhardt, M. Kasprzak, T. Japel, S. Zaefferer, D. Raabe, S. Richter, A. Schwedt, J. Mayer, B. Wietbrock, G. Hirt, and J.M. Schneider, Elastic properties of face-centred cubic Fe-Mn-C studied by nanoindentation and ab initio calculations, Acta Mater., 60(2012), No. 17, p. 6025.Google Scholar
  33. [33]
    C. Chen, X.Y. Feng, B. Lv, Z.N. Yang, and F.C. Zhang, A study on aging carbide precipitation behavior of hadfield steel by dynamic elastic modulus, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 677(2016), p. 446.Google Scholar
  34. [34]
    D. Singh, P.N. Rao, and R. Jayaganthan, Microstructures and impact toughness behavior of Al 5083 alloy processed by cryorolling and afterwards annealing, Int. J. Miner. Metall. Mater., 20(2013), No. 8, p. 759.Google Scholar
  35. [35]
    C.F. Wang, M.Q. Wang, J. Shi, W.J. Hui, and H. Dong, Effect of microstructure refinement on the strength and toughness of low alloy martensitic steel, J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 23(2007), No. 5, p. 659.Google Scholar
  36. [36]
    A.A. Astaf’ev, Effect of grain size on the properties of manganese austenitic steel 110G13L, Met. Sci. Heat Treat., 39(1997), No. 5, p. 198.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© University of Science and Technology Beijing and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Metallurgical and Materials EngineeringIndian Institute of TechnologyKharagpurIndia

Personalised recommendations