Pathology Meets Biology: the New Era of Breast Cancer Staging
Purpose of Review
Breast cancer is now recognized to be a very heterogeneous disease. This complexity was recently reflected in the newest American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) breast cancer staging, implemented in 2018. Although it seems very daunting, the new staging is based on both the anatomical extent of the disease and the prognostic factors such as hormonal and HER2 status, grade of the tumor, and genomic assays providing information regarding risk of recurrence. The purpose of this review is to illustrate the reasoning for the change in previous, solely an anatomically based breast cancer staging system and to report the updates.
The research showed that evaluation of breast cancer through immunohistochemistry and utility of genomic assays provides substantial prognostic information.
The combination of anatomic and prognostic factors has a tremendous impact on outcome predictive abilities of the staging system for each affected individual.
KeywordsBreast cancer staging Biomarkers Intrinsic subtypes Genomic assays Prognostic factors
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The author declares that there are no conflicts of interest.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by the author.
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance
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