Advertisement

Current Breast Cancer Reports

, Volume 10, Issue 3, pp 148–156 | Cite as

Early Diagnosis of Breast Cancer in the Absence of Population-Based Mammographic Screening in Asia

  • C. H. Yip
  • N. A. Taib
  • C. V. Song
  • R. K. Pritam Singh
  • G. Agarwal
Global Breast Cancer (BO Anderson and C Duggan, Section Editors)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Global Breast Cancer

Abstract

Purpose of Review

Asia is made up of mainly low- and middle-income countries, where the majority of breast cancer presents as late-stage disease where survival is poor even with treatment. We review methods of early diagnosis of breast cancer in countries where population-based mammographic screening is not feasible.

Recent findings

While there is insufficient evidence that breast self-examination and clinical breast examination (CBE) lead to a reduction in breast cancer mortality, recent trials have shown that screening with CBE successfully reduces stage at diagnosis, which may translate to improved breast cancer survival with longer follow-up. CBE may have an educational component whereby women with new breast lumps may seek care earlier.

Summary

Overcoming sociocultural barriers to early detection in Asia is important before any early detection programme can be implemented. Public education, together with strengthening existing public health services, is key to earlier diagnosis of breast cancer.

Keywords

Breast cancer Early diagnosis Low- and middle-income countries Asia Mammographic screening 

Notes

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.

References

Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major Importance

  1. 1.
    •• Ferlay J, Soerjomataram I, Ervik M, Dikshit R, Eser S, Mathers C, Rebelo M, Parkin DM, Forman D, Bray, F. GLOBOCAN 2012 v1.0, Cancer incidence and mortality worldwide: IARC CancerBase No. 11 [Internet]. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer; 2013. Available from: http://globocan.iarc.fr, accessed on 18 Feb 2018. This website is an important soource for worldwide cancer incidence and mortality.
  2. 2.
    Stenning-Persivale K, Franco MJS, Cordero-Morales A, Cruzado-Burga J, Poquioma E, Nava ED, et al. The mortality-incidence ratio as an indicator of five-year cancer survival in metropolitan Lima. Ecancermedicalscience. 2018;12:799.  https://doi.org/10.3332/ecancer.2018.799.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    •• Allemani C, Matsuda T, Di Carlo V, Harewood R, Matz M, Niksic M et al. Global surveillance of trends in cancer survival 2000-14 (CONCORD-3): analysis of individual records for 37 513 025 patients diagnosed with one of 18 cancers from 322 population-based registries in 71 countries. Lancet. 2018;391(10125):1023-75..  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(17)33326-3. Cancer survival in 71 countries
  4. 4.
    Ho GFTN, Pritam Singh RK, Yip CH, Abdullah MM, Lim TO. What if all patients with breast cancer in Malaysia have access to the best available care: how many deaths are avoidable? Glob J Health Sci. 2017;9(8):32–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    • Porter P. “Westernizing” women’s risks? Breast cancer in lower-income countries. N Engl J Med. 2008;358(3):213–6.  https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMp0708307. Reason for the increase in breast cancer incidence in low- and middle-income countries CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Agarwal G, Ramakant P. Breast cancer care in India: the current scenario and the challenges for the future. Breast Care (Basel). 2008;3(1):21–7.  https://doi.org/10.1159/000115288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Leong BD, Chuah JA, Kumar VM, Rohamini S, Siti ZS, Yip CH. Trends of breast cancer treatment in Sabah, Malaysia: a problem with lack of awareness. Singap Med J. 2009;50(8):772–6.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Yip CH, Bhoo Pathy N, Teo SH. A review of breast cancer research in Malaysia. Med J Malaysia. 2014;69(Suppl A):8–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    •• Nelson HD, Pappas M, Cantor A, Griffin J, Daeges M, Humphrey L. Harms of breast cancer screening: systematic review to update the 2009 U.S. preventive services task force recommendation. Ann Intern Med. 2016;164(4):256–67.  https://doi.org/10.7326/M15-0970. Latest breast cancer screening guidelines from the USPTF CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    •• Screening UK Panel on Breast Cancer Screening. The benefits and harms of breast cancer screening: an independent review. Lancet. 2012;380(9855):1778–86.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61611-0. An independent review on breast cancer screening in UK CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Burton RC, Bell RJ, Thiagarajah G, Stevenson C. Adjuvant therapy, not mammographic screening, accounts for most of the observed breast cancer specific mortality reductions in Australian women since the national screening program began in 1991. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2012;131(3):949–55.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10549-011-1794-6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    •• Lauby-Secretan B, Scoccianti C, Loomis D, Benbrahim-Tallaa L, Bouvard V, Bianchini F, et al. Breast-cancer screening—viewpoint of the IARC working group. N Engl J Med. 2015;372(24):2353–8.  https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMsr1504363. Recommendation by IARC on breast cancer screening CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ng EH, Ng FC, Tan PH, Low SC, Chiang G, Tan KP, et al. Results of intermediate measures from a population-based, randomized trial of mammographic screening prevalence and detection of breast carcinoma among Asian women: the Singapore Breast Screening Project. Cancer. 1998;82(8):1521–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Loy EY, Molinar D, Chow KY, Fock C. National Breast Cancer Screening Programme, Singapore: evaluation of participation and performance indicators. J Med Screen. 2015;22(4):194–200.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0969141315589644.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Straughan PT, Seow A. Attitudes as barriers in breast screening: a prospective study among Singapore women. Soc Sci Med. 2000;51(11):1695–703.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Lee EH, Kim KW, Kim YJ, Shin DR, Park YM, Lim HS, et al. Performance of screening mammography: a report of the alliance for breast cancer screening in Korea. Korean J Radiol. 2016;17(4):489–96.  https://doi.org/10.3348/kjr.2016.17.4.489.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Pan HB, Wong KF, Yang TL, Hsu GC, Chou CP, Huang JS, et al. The outcome of a quality-controlled mammography screening program: experience from a population-based study in Taiwan. J Chin Med Assoc. 2014;77(10):531–4.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcma.2014.06.013.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kikuchi M, Tsunoda H, Koyama T, Kawakita T, Suzuki K, Yamauchi H, et al. Opportunistic breast cancer screening by mammography in Japan for women in their 40s at our preventive medical center: harm or benefit? Breast Cancer. 2014;21(2):135–9.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12282-012-0367-9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Teh YC, Tan GH, Taib NA, Rahmat K, Westerhout CJ, Fadzli F, et al. Opportunistic mammography screening provides effective detection rates in a limited resource healthcare system. BMC Cancer. 2015;15:405.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s12885-015-1419-2.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    • Mariapun S, Li J, Yip CH, Taib NA, Teo SH. Ethnic differences in mammographic densities: an Asian cross-sectional study. PLoS One. 2015;10(2):e0117568.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0117568. Ethnic differences in breast density CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Leung GM, Lam TH, Thach TQ, Hedley AJ. Will screening mammography in the East do more harm than good? Am J Public Health. 2002;92(11):1841–6.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Unger-Saldana K. Challenges to the early diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer in developing countries. World J Clin Oncol. 2014;5(3):465–77.  https://doi.org/10.5306/wjco.v5.i3.465.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
  24. 24.
    •• Thomas DB, Gao DL, Ray RM, Wang WW, Allison CJ, Chen FL, et al. Randomized trial of breast self-examination in Shanghai: final results. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2002;94(19):1445–57. Landmark RCT on breast self-examination CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    •• Mittra I, Mishra GA, Singh S, Aranke S, Notani P, Badwe R, et al. A cluster randomized, controlled trial of breast and cervix cancer screening in Mumbai, India: methodology and interim results after three rounds of screening. Int J Cancer. 2010;126(4):976–84.  https://doi.org/10.1002/ijc.24840. Results from the clinical breast examination RCT in India PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Sankaranarayanan R, Ramadas K, Thara S, Muwonge R, Prabhakar J, Augustine P, et al. Clinical breast examination: preliminary results from a cluster randomized controlled trial in India. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2011;103(19):1476–80.  https://doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djr304.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Pisani P, Parkin DM, Ngelangel C, Esteban D, Gibson L, Munson M, et al. Outcome of screening by clinical examination of the breast in a trial in the Philippines. Int J Cancer. 2006;118(1):149–54.  https://doi.org/10.1002/ijc.21343.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Kardinah D, Anderson BO, Duggan C, Ali IA, Thomas DB. Short report: limited effectiveness of screening mammography in addition to clinical breast examination by trained nurse midwives in rural Jakarta, Indonesia. Int J Cancer. 2014;134(5):1250–5.  https://doi.org/10.1002/ijc.28442.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Taib NA, Yip CH, Low WY. Recognising symptoms of breast cancer as a reason for delayed presentation in Asian women—the psycho-socio-cultural model for breast symptom appraisal: opportunities for intervention. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2011;12(6):1601–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Zulkipli AF, Islam T, Mohd Taib NA, Dahlui M, Bhoo-Pathy N, Al-Sadat N, et al. Use of complementary and alternative medicine among newly diagnosed breast cancer patients in Malaysia: an early report from the MyBCC study. Integr Cancer Ther. 2017;1534735417745248  https://doi.org/10.1177/1534735417745248.
  31. 31.
    Mohd Mujar NM, Dahlui M, Emran NA, Abdul Hadi I, Wai YY, Arulanantham S, et al. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use and delays in presentation and diagnosis of breast cancer patients in public hospitals in Malaysia. PLoS One. 2017;12(4):e0176394.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0176394.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Lim JN, Potrata B, Simonella L, Ng CW, Aw TC, Dahlui M, et al. Barriers to early presentation of self-discovered breast cancer in Singapore and Malaysia: a qualitative multicentre study. BMJ Open. 2015;5(12):e009863.  https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2015-009863.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Banning M, Tanzeen T. Living with advanced breast cancer: perceptions of Pakistani women on life expectations and fears. Cancer Nurs. 2014;37(1):E12–8.  https://doi.org/10.1097/NCC.0b013e318279e479.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Banning M, Hafeez H, Faisal S, Hassan M, Zafar A. The impact of culture and sociological and psychological issues on Muslim patients with breast cancer in Pakistan. Cancer Nurs. 2009;32(4):317–24.  https://doi.org/10.1097/NCC.0b013e31819b240f.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    • Taib NA, Yip CH, Low WY. A grounded explanation of why women present with advanced breast cancer. World J Surg. 2014;38(7):1676–84.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00268-013-2339-4. Reason for late presentation of breast cancer in an Asian country CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    ACTION Group, Kimman M, Jan S, Yip CH, Thabrany H, Peters SA, et al. Catastrophic health expenditure and 12-month mortality associated with cancer in Southeast Asia: results from a longitudinal study in eight countries. BMC Med. 2015;13:190.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s12916-015-0433-1. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Kong YC, Bhoo-Pathy N, Subramaniam S, Bhoo-Pathy N, Taib NA, Jamaris S, et al. Advanced stage at presentation remains a major factor contributing to breast cancer survival disparity between public and private hospitals in a middle-income country. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2017;14(4)  https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14040427.
  38. 38.
    •• Breast cancer in asia the challenge and response A report from The Economist Intelligence Unit. https://www.eiuperspectives.economist.com/sites/default/files/EIU%20Breast%20Cancer%20in%20Asia_Final.pdf. Accessed 6 May 18. A report on the state of breast cancer in Asia.
  39. 39.
    • Azenha G, Bass LP, Caleffi M, Smith R, Pretorius L, Durstine A, et al. The role of breast cancer civil society in different resource settings. Breast. 2011;20(Suppl 2):S81–7.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.breast.2011.02.005. The role of civil society in breast cancer control CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Sankaranarayanan R, Ramadas K, Qiao YL. Managing the changing burden of cancer in Asia. BMC Med. 2014;12:3.  https://doi.org/10.1186/1741-7015-12-3.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Jaganathan MHD, Zainal NH, Rajaram N, Yusof M, Teo SH. Breast Cancer patient navigation program in a resource-constrained health care setting in Asia. J Glob Oncol. 2017;3(2):6s.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Controlling cancer The state of national cancer control plans in Asia. A report from the Economist Intelligence Unit 2015. http://perspectives.eiu.com/healthcare/controlling-cancer/white-paper/controlling-cancer?redirect=TRUE Accessed 6 May 18.
  43. 43.
    Cuzick J, Brentnall A, Dowsett M. SNPs for breast cancer risk assessment. Oncotarget. 2017;8(59):99211–2.  https://doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.22278. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Wong XY, Chong KJ, van Til JA, Wee HL. A qualitative study on Singaporean women’s views towards breast cancer screening and Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) gene testing to guide personalised screening strategies. BMC Cancer. 2017;17(1):776.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s12885-017-3781-8. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    • Hall P, Easton D. Breast cancer screening: time to target women at risk. Br J Cancer. 2013;108(11):2202–4.  https://doi.org/10.1038/bjc.2013.257. This study suggests targeted breast cancer screening rather than population-based screening CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Nakamura S, Kwong A, Kim SW, Iau P, Patmasiriwat P, Dofitas R, et al. Current status of the management of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer in Asia: first report by the Asian BRCA consortium. Public Health Genomics. 2016;19(1):53–60.  https://doi.org/10.1159/000441714. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Burke NJ, Mathews HF. Returning to earth: setting a global agenda for the anthropology of cancer. Med Anthropol. 2017;36(3):179–86.  https://doi.org/10.1080/01459740.2016.1255611.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Devi BC, Tang TS, Corbex M. Reducing by half the percentage of late-stage presentation for breast and cervix cancer over 4 years: a pilot study of clinical downstaging in Sarawak, Malaysia. Ann Oncol. 2007;18(7):1172–6.  https://doi.org/10.1093/annonc/mdm105.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Bagcchi S. India launches plan for national cancer screening programme. BMJ. 2016;355:i5574.  https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.i5574.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Romanoff A, Constant TH, Johnson KM, Guadiamos MC, Vega AMB, Zunt J, et al. Association of previous clinical breast examination with reduced delays and earlier-stage breast cancer diagnosis among women in Peru. JAMA Oncol. 2017;3(11):1563–7.  https://doi.org/10.1001/jamaoncol.2017.1023.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    •• Yip CH, Smith RA, Anderson BO, Miller AB, Thomas DB, Ang ES, et al. Guideline implementation for breast healthcare in low- and middle-income countries: early detection resource allocation. Cancer. 2008;113(8 Suppl):2244–56.  https://doi.org/10.1002/cncr.23842. Resource stratified guidelines for early detection of breast cancer CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. H. Yip
    • 1
  • N. A. Taib
    • 1
  • C. V. Song
    • 2
  • R. K. Pritam Singh
    • 3
  • G. Agarwal
    • 4
  1. 1.University of MalayaKuala LumpurMalaysia
  2. 2.Cancer Research MalaysiaSubang JayaMalaysia
  3. 3.Breast Cancer Welfare AssociationPetaling JayaMalaysia
  4. 4.Sanjay Gandhi Post-Graduate Institute of Medical SciencesLucknowIndia

Personalised recommendations