Biology and Novel Targets in Metaplastic Breast Cancer
- 96 Downloads
Metaplastic breast cancer represents a spectrum of histologic subtypes with the common feature of divergent morphologic differentiation. Most of these subtypes are associated with chemotherapy resistance and an increased likelihood of developing distant metastatic disease, which has been associated with a poor prognosis. However, recent molecular characterization has indicated that some metaplastic cancers may respond to targeted therapy regimens currently undergoing evaluation in early phase clinical trials. In this review, the pathologic characteristics and epidemiology of metaplastic breast cancer are discussed along with novel therapeutic agents that may augment standard chemotherapy for this intriguing type of breast cancer.
KeywordsBreast cancer Metaplastic Stem cell Triple-negative
No conflicts of interest relevant to this article were reported.
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance
- 19.Nguyen CV, Falcon-Escobedo R, Hunt KK, et al. Pleomorphic ductal carcinoma of the breast: predictors of decreased overall survival. Am J Surg Pathol. 2010;34;486–493.Google Scholar
- 24.Lester TR, Hunt KK, Nayeemuddin KM, et al. Metaplastic sarcomatoid carcinoma of the breast appears more aggressive than other triple receptor-negative breast cancers. Breast Cancer Res Treat.Google Scholar
- 26.Okada N, Hasebe T, Iwasaki M, et al. Metaplastic carcinoma of the breast. Hum Pathol.Google Scholar
- 27.Yamaguchi R, Horii R, Maeda I, et al. Clinicopathologic study of 53 metaplastic breast carcinomas: their elements and prognostic implications. Hum Pathol. 2010;41:679–685.Google Scholar
- 28.Jung SY, Kim HY, Nam BH, et al. Worse prognosis of metaplastic breast cancer patients than other patients with triple-negative breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 120;627–637.Google Scholar
- 41.• Hennessy BT, Gonzalez-Angulo AM, Stemke-Hale K, et al. Characterization of a naturally occurring breast cancer subset enriched in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and stem cell characteristics. Cancer Res. 2009;69:4116–24. This article describes the high rate of PIK3CA mutations and molecular characteristics of subtypes of metaplastic breast cancer, including the high correlation with a cancer stem cell-derived molecular signature.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 42.Prat A, Parker JS, Karginova O, et al. Phenotypic and molecular characterization of the claudin-low intrinsic subtype of breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res. 2010;12:R68.Google Scholar
- 51.• Taube JH, Herschkowitz JI, Komurov K, et al. Core epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition interactome gene-expression signature is associated with claudin-low and metaplastic breast cancer subtypes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:15449–54. This article details the features of metaplastic breast cancer that relate to epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 59.Chuthapisith S, Eremin J, El-Sheemey M, Eremin O. Breast cancer chemoresistance: Emerging importance of cancer stem cells. Surg Oncol. 2009.Google Scholar
- 67.Moulder S, Moroney J, Helgason T, et al. Responses to liposomal Doxorubicin, bevacizumab, and temsirolimus in metaplastic carcinoma of the breast: biologic rationale and implications for stem-cell research in breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2011;29:e572–575.Google Scholar