Advertisement

The journal of nutrition, health & aging

, Volume 22, Issue 8, pp 938–943 | Cite as

Depression and Handgrip Strength Among U.S. Adults Aged 60 Years and Older from NHANES 2011–2014

  • Jessica M. Brooks
  • A. J. Titus
  • M. L. Bruce
  • N. M. Orzechowski
  • T. A. Mackenzie
  • S. J. Bartels
  • J. A. Batsis
Article

Abstract

Objectives

Sarcopenia is a gradual loss of muscle mass and strength that occurs with aging. This muscle deterioration is linked to increased morbidity, disability, and other adverse outcomes. Although reduced handgrip strength can be considered a marker of sarcopenia and other aging-related decline in the elderly, there is limited research on this physical health problem in at-risk groups with common biopsychosocial conditions such as depression. Our primary objective was to ascertain level of combined handgrip strength and its relationship with depression among adults aged 60 years and older.

Design

Unadjusted and adjusted linear regression models were conducted with a cross-sectional survey dataset.

Setting

Secondary dataset from the 2011–2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES).

Participants

Community-dwelling, noninstitutionalized adults ≥60 years old (n=3,421).

Measurements

The predictor variables included a positive screen for clinically relevant depression (referent=PHQ-9 score <10). The criterion variable of combined handgrip strength (kg) was determined using a dynamometer.

Results

Mean age and BMI were 69.9 years (51.5% female) and 28.8 kg/m2, respectively. Mean combined handgrip strength in the overall cohort was 73.5 and 46.6 kg in males and females, respectively. Three hundred thirty-six (9.8%) reported symptoms of depression. In unadjusted and fully adjusted models, depression was significantly associated with reduced handgrip strength (B =–0.26±0.79 and B =–0.19±0.08, respectively; p<0.001).

Conclusion

Our findings demonstrate handgrip strength has a significant inverse association with depression. Future longitudinal studies should investigate the causal processes and potential moderators and mediators of the relationships between depression and reduced handgrip strength. This information may further encourage the use of depression and handgrip strength assessments and aid in the monitoring and implementation of health care services that address both physical and mental health limitations among older adult populations.

Key words

Handgrip strength sarcopenia depression epidemiology 

References

  1. 1.
    Cruz-Jentoft AJ, Baeyens JP, Bauer JM, et al. Sarcopenia: European consensus on definition and diagnosis: Report of the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People. Age Ageing 2010;39:412–423.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Studenski SA, Peters KW, Alley DE, et al. The FNIH sarcopenia project: rationale, study description, conference recommendations, and final estimates. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2014;69:547–558.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kim TN, Choi KM. Sarcopenia: definition, epidemiology, and pathophysiology. J Bone Miner Res 2013;20:1–10.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Rolland Y, Czerwinski S, Van Kan GA, et al. Sarcopenia: its assessment, etiology, pathogenesis, consequences and future perspectives. J Nutr Health Aging 2008;12:433–450.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Batsis JA, Mackenzie TA, Lopez-Jimenez F, Bartels SJ. Sarcopenia, sarcopenic obesity, and functional impairments in older adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 1999–2004. Nutr Res 2015;35:1031–1039.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Low Choy NL, Brauer SG, Nitz JC. Age-related changes in strength and somatosensation during midlife. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2007;1114:180–193.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Cawthon PM, Fox KM, Gandra SR, et al. Do muscle mass, muscle density, strength, and physical function similarly influence risk of hospitalization in older adults? J Am Geriatr Soc 2009;57:1411–1419.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Batsis J, Mackenzie T, Barre L, Lopez-Jimenez F, Bartels S. Sarcopenia, sarcopenic obesity and mortality in older adults: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III. Eur J Clin Nutr 2014;68:1001–1007.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Sun S, Lee H, Yim H, Won H, Ko Y. The impact of sarcopenia on health-related quality of life in elderly people: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Korean J Intern Med. 2017.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    World Health Organization. International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health: ICF. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 2001.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Depression is not a normal part of growing older 2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Web site. https://doi.org/www.cdc.gov/aging/mentalhealth/depression.htm..
  12. 12.
    Verhaak P, Dekker J, De Waal M, Van Marwijk H, Comijs H. Depression, disability and somatic diseases among elderly. J Affect Disord 2014;167:187–191.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bruce ML. Depression and disability in late life: directions for future research. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry 2001;9:102–112.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Lenze EJ, Schulz R, Martire LM, et al. The course of functional decline in older people with persistently elevated depressive symptoms: longitudinal findings from the Cardiovascular Health Study. J Am Geriatr Soc 2005;53:569–575.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Bruce ML, Seeman TE, Merrill SS, Blazer DG. The impact of depressive symptomatology on physical disability: MacArthur Studies of Successful Aging. Am J Public Health 1994;84:1796–1799.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Cole MG, Dendukuri N. Risk factors for depression among elderly community subjects: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry 2003;160:1147–1156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Santos KT, Fernandes MH, Reis LA, Coqueiro RS, Rocha SV. Depressive symptoms and motor performance in the elderly: a population based study. Braz J Phys Ther 2012;16:295–300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Van Gool CH, Kempen GI, Penninx BW, Deeg DJ, Beekman AT, Van Eijk JT. Relationship between changes in depressive symptoms and unhealthy lifestyles in late middle aged and older persons: results from the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam. Age Ageing 2003;32:81–87.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Chang K-V, Hsu T-H, Wu W-T, Huang K-C, Han D-S. Is sarcopenia associated with depression? A systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. Age and Ageing: 2017;1–9.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Hamer M, Batty GD, Kivimaki M. Sarcopenic obesity and risk of new onset depressive symptoms in older adults: English longitudinal study of ageing. Int J Obes 2015;39:1717–1720.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Nipp RD, Fuchs G, El-Jawahri A, et al. Sarcopenia Is associated with quality of life and depression in patients with advanced cancer. Oncologist 2017.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Pasco JA, Williams LJ, Jacka FN, et al. Sarcopenia and the common mental disorders: a potential regulatory role of skeletal muscle on brain function? Curr Osteoporos Rep 2015;13:351–357.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Byeon C-H, Kang K-Y, Kang S-H, Kim H-K, Bae E-J. Sarcopenia is not associated with depression in Korean adults: results from the 2010–2011 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Korean J Fam Med 2016;37:37–43.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Ishii S, Chang C, Tanaka T, et al. The association between sarcopenic obesity and depressive symptoms in older Japanese adults. PloS One 2016;11:e0162898.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Hsu YH, Liang CK, Chou MY, et al. Association of cognitive impairment, depressive symptoms and sarcopenia among healthy older men in the veterans retirement community in southern Taiwan: A cross-sectional study. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2014;14:102–108.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Kim J-I, Choe M-A, Chae YR. Prevalence and predictors of geriatric depression in community-dwelling elderly. Asian Nurs Res 2009;3:121–129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Rantanen T, Volpato S, Ferrucci L, Heikkinen E, Fried LP, Guralnik JM. Handgrip strength and cause-specific and total mortality in older disabled women: exploring the mechanism. J Am Geriatr Soc 2003;51:636–641.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Stessman J, Rottenberg Y, Fischer M, Hammerman-Rozenberg A, Jacobs JM. Handgrip strength in old and very old adults: mood, cognition, function, and mortality. J Am Geriatr Soc 2017;65:526–532.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Taekema DG, Gussekloo J, Maier AB, Westendorp RG, de Craen AJ. Handgrip strength as a predictor of functional, psychological and social health. A prospective population-based study among the oldest old. Age Ageing 2010;39:331–337.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Katz IR. On the inseparability of mental and physical health in aged persons: lessons from depression and medical comorbidity. J Am Geriatr Soc 1996;4:1–16.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Lenze EJ, Rogers JC, Martire LM, et al. The association of late-life depression and anxiety with physical disability: a review of the literature and prospectus for future research. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry 2001;9:113–135.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Weissman MM, Klerman GL. Depression: Current understanding and changing trends. Annual Review of Public Health 1992;13:319–339.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Takeshita J, Masaki K, Ahmed I, et al. Are depressive symptoms a risk factor for mortality in elderly Japanese American men?: the Honolulu-Asia Aging Study. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry 2002;159:1127–1132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Soysal P, Veronese N, Thompson T, et al. Relationship between depression and frailty in older adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Ageing Research Reviews, 2017.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Kroenke K, Spitzer RL, Williams JB. The Phq-9. J Gen Intern Med 2001;16:606–613.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Manea L, Gilbody S, McMillan D. Optimal cut-off score for diagnosing depression with the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9): a meta-analysis. Can Med Assoc J 2012;184:E191–E196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Amieva H, Mokri H, Le Goff M, et al. Compensatory mechanisms in higher-educated subjects with Alzheimer’s disease: a study of 20 years of cognitive decline. Brain 2014;137:1167–1175.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Chatterji S, Byles J, Cutler D, Seeman T, Verdes E. Health, functioning, and disability in older adults—present status and future implications. Lancet 2015;385:563–575.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Goodpaster BH, Park SW, Harris TB, et al. The loss of skeletal muscle strength, mass, and quality in older adults: the health, aging and body composition study. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2006;61:1059–1064.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Lee W-J, Liu L-K, Peng L-N, Lin M-H, Chen L-K, Group IR. Comparisons of sarcopenia defined by IWGS and EWGSOP criteria among older people: results from the I-Lan longitudinal aging study. J Am Med Dir Assoc 2013;14:521–528.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Byers AL, Yaffe K, Covinsky KE, Friedman MB, Bruce ML. High occurrence of mood and anxiety disorders among older adults: The National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2010;67:489–496.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Bakunina N, Pariante CM, Zunszain PA. Immune mechanisms linked to depression via oxidative stress and neuroprogression. Immunol 2015;144:365–373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Meng S-J, Yu L-J. Oxidative stress, molecular inflammation and sarcopenia. Int J Mol Sci 2010;11:1509–1526.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Baune BT, Smith E, Reppermund S, et al. Inflammatory biomarkers predict depressive, but not anxiety symptoms during aging: the prospective Sydney Memory and Aging Study. Psychoneuroendocrinology 2012;37:1521–1530.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Jensen GL. Inflammation: roles in aging and sarcopenia. J Parenter Enteral Nutr 2008;32:656–659.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Akbaraly TN, Kumari M, Head J, et al (2013) Glycemia, insulin resistance, insulin secretion, and risk of depressive symptoms in middle age. Diabetes Care 2013;36:928–934.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Umegaki H. Sarcopenia and diabetes: Hyperglycemia is a risk factor for ageassociated muscle mass and functional reduction. J Diabetes Investig 2015;6:623–624.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Milaneschi Y, Simonsick EM, Vogelzangs N, et al. Leptin, abdominal obesity and onset of depression in older men and women. J Clin Psychiatry 2012;73:1205–11.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Waters DL, Qualls CR, Dorin RI, Veldhuis JD, Baumgartner RN. Altered growth hormone, cortisol, and leptin secretion in healthy elderly persons with sarcopenia and mixed body composition phenotypes. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2008;63:536–541.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Beck AT, Brown GK, Steer RA, Kuyken W, Grisham J. Psychometric properties of the beck self-esteem scales. Behav Res Ther 2001;39:115–124.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Serdi and Springer-Verlag France SAS, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jessica M. Brooks
    • 1
    • 2
    • 10
  • A. J. Titus
    • 3
    • 4
  • M. L. Bruce
    • 1
    • 5
  • N. M. Orzechowski
    • 6
  • T. A. Mackenzie
    • 7
    • 8
  • S. J. Bartels
    • 1
    • 5
  • J. A. Batsis
    • 5
    • 8
    • 9
  1. 1.Department of Psychiatry, Geisel School of Medicine and Centers for Health and AgingDartmouth CollegeLebanonUSA
  2. 2.Department of Rehabilitation and Health ServicesUniversity of North TexasDentonUSA
  3. 3.Quantitative Biomedical SciencesDartmouth CollegeHanoverUSA
  4. 4.Department of EpidemiologyGeisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth CollegeHanoverUSA
  5. 5.The Dartmouth Institute for Health Policy & Clinical PracticeLebanonUSA
  6. 6.Section of RheumatologyDartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center and Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth CollegeLebanonUSA
  7. 7.Biomedical Data ScienceDartmouth CollegeLebanonUSA
  8. 8.Department of MedicineDartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center and Geisel School of MedicineLebanonUSA
  9. 9.Centers for Health and AgingLebanonUSA
  10. 10.Department of PsychiatryLebanonUSA

Personalised recommendations