The journal of nutrition, health & aging

, Volume 20, Issue 5, pp 520–524 | Cite as

A comparison of objective physical activity, muscle strength, and depression among community-dwelling older women living in sloped versus non-sloped environments

  • Takako Tanaka
  • K. Tanaka
  • K. Suyama
  • S. Honda
  • H. Senjyu
  • R. Kozu



To examine the relationship between the living location and outcomes of physical activity level and physical and psychological functioning in older women. The specific aim was to understand the association between living in a sloped versus non-sloped environment and these outcomes.


Cross-sectional study.

Setting and Participants

108 older women aged 65 years or older who resided in Nagasaki prefecture participated.


Physical activity, lung function, muscle strength (hand grip and quadriceps force) and depressive symptoms were assessed objectively.


In logistic regression, activity counts per day (OR 0.779, 95%CI 0.715-0.841, p<0.01), activity times per day (OR 0.821, 95%CI 0.801-0.913, p<0.01), hand grip force (OR 0.666, 95%CI 0.558-0.796, p<0.001), and depressed (Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale score ≥16) (OR 1.093, 95%CI 1.019-1.427, p<0.05) showed statistically significant inverse associations with living in a sloped ground.


Since dwelling on sloped ground was associated with negative (lower physical activity levels, lower grip strength, and more depression) outcomes, a comprehensive geriatric assessment, related to all aspects of older women, is recommended. Planning of home exercise programs for the elderly should take such environmental factors into consideration.

Key words

Environmental slope older women physical activity physical function depression 


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Copyright information

© Serdi and Springer-Verlag France 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Takako Tanaka
    • 1
  • K. Tanaka
    • 1
  • K. Suyama
    • 1
  • S. Honda
    • 1
  • H. Senjyu
    • 1
  • R. Kozu
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation ScienceNagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical SciencesNagasakiJapan

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