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The journal of nutrition, health & aging

, Volume 19, Issue 9, pp 913–921 | Cite as

Effects of changes in regional body composition on physical function in older adults: A pilot randomized controlled trial

  • A. J. Santanasto
  • A. B. Newman
  • E. S. Strotmeyer
  • R. M. Boudreau
  • B. H. Goodpaster
  • Nancy W. GlynnEmail author
Article

Abstract

Background/Objective

Obesity exacerbates age-related physical disability; however, observational studies show that any weight loss in old age is associated with greater risk of mortality. Conversely, randomized controlled trials in older adults show that weight loss is beneficial. The discrepancy may be due to weight loss intention and differential changes to regional body composition. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the independent role of regional body composition remodeling in improving physical function.

Design

Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial.

Setting

Community based research center.

Participants

Thirty-six community dwelling, overweight to moderately obese (BMI 28.0–39.9 kg/m2) older adults (age 70.6±6.1 yrs).

Intervention

Physical activity plus weight loss (PA+WL, n=21) or PA plus successful aging (SA) education. PA consisted primary of treadmill walking supplemented with lower extremity resistance and balance training. The WL program was based on the Diabetes Prevention Project and aimed at achieving a 7% weight loss by cutting calories, specifically those from fat.

Measurements

At baseline, 6- and 12-months, body composition was measured using computerized tomography and dual x-ray absorptiometry. Abdominal visceral (VAT) and thigh intermuscular (IMAT) adipose tissue were quantified. Physical function was assessed using the short physical performance battery (SPPB).

Results

Separate multivariable linear regression models with both groups combined demonstrated that decreases in IMAT and VAT were significantly associated with improvements in SPPB (P<0.05) independent of change in total fat mass. PA+WL improved SPPB scores from baseline (0.8±1.4, P<0.05), whereas PA+SA did not; however no intergroup difference was detected. Of note, these effects were mainly achieved during the intensive intervention phase.

Conclusion

Decreases in IMAT and VAT are important mechanisms underlying improved function following intentional weight loss plus physical activity.

Key words

Weight loss physical activity intermuscular fat visceral fat physical function 

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Copyright information

© Serdi and Springer-Verlag France 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. J. Santanasto
    • 1
  • A. B. Newman
    • 1
  • E. S. Strotmeyer
    • 1
  • R. M. Boudreau
    • 1
  • B. H. Goodpaster
    • 2
    • 3
  • Nancy W. Glynn
    • 1
    • 4
    Email author
  1. 1.Center for Aging and Population Health, Department of Epidemiology, Graduate School of Public HealthUniversity of PittsburghPittsburghUSA
  2. 2.Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, School of MedicineUniversity of PittsburghPittsburghUSA
  3. 3.Sanford Burnham Medical Research InstituteMetabolic Disease ProgramOrlandoUSA
  4. 4.PittsburghUSA

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