Advertisement

The journal of nutrition, health & aging

, Volume 19, Issue 5, pp 531–536 | Cite as

Effect of cysteine-rich whey protein (Immunocal®) supplementation in combination with resistance training on muscle strength and lean body mass in non-frail elderly subjects: A randomized, double-blind controlled study

  • Antony Karelis
  • V. Messier
  • C. Suppère
  • P. Briand
  • R. Rabasa-Lhoret
Article

Abstract

Objectives

The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of a cysteine-rich whey protein (Immunocal®) supplementation in combination with resistance training on muscle strength and lean body mass (LBM) in elderly individuals. We hypothesized that the cysteine-rich whey protein (Immunocal®) group would experience a greater increase in muscle strength and lean body mass versus the control group (casein).

Design

Randomized double-blind controlled intervention study.

Setting

Institut de Recherches Cliniques de Montréal in Montreal, Canada.

Participants

Ninety-nine non-frail elderly subjects were recruited.

Intervention

Participants were randomly assigned into two groups. The experimental group received a cysteine-rich whey protein isolate (Immunocal®) (20 g/day) and the control group received casein (20 g/day) during a 135-day period. In addition, both groups performed the same resistance training program (3 times per week).

Measurements

Body composition (DXA) and muscle strength (leg press) were measured.

Results

Of the 99 recruited participants, 84 completed the 135-day study period. Of these, 67 subjects (33 in the casein group and 34 in the Immunocal® group) complied and used at least 80 % of the study product and completed at least 80 % of their training sessions. Results in this selected group show an increase in all three muscle strength variables (absolute, normalized by BW and by LBM) by 31.0 %, 30.9 % and 30.0 %, respectively in the casein group as well as 39.3 %, 39.9 % and 43.3 %, respectively in the Immunocal® group after the intervention (p < 0.05). The increases in muscle strength favored Immunocal® versus casein by approximately 10 % when expressed in kg per kg BW and in kg per kg LBM (p < 0.05). No significant changes were found between pre-and-post intervention in both groups for total LBM.

Conclusions

Our findings showed increases in muscle strength in both groups after resistance training, however, significant additional increases were observed in muscle strength with the addition of a cysteine-rich whey protein (Immunocal®) versus casein.

Keywords

Nutritional intervention casein natural health product leg press aging and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Clark BC, Manini TM. Functional consequences of sarcopenia and dynapenia in the elderly. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2010;13:271–6.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Brady AO, Straight CR, Schmidt MD, Evans EM. Impact of body mass index on the relationship between muscle quality and physical function in older women. J Nutr Health Aging. 2014;18:378–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Doherty TJ. Invited review: Aging and sarcopenia. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2003;95:1717–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Fiatarone MA, Marks EC, Ryan ND, Meredith CN, Lipsitz LA, Evans WJ. High-intensity strength training in nonagenarians. Effects on skeletal muscle. JAMA. 1990;263:3029–34.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Baker H. Nutrition in the elderly: diet pitfalls and nutrition advice. Geriatrics. 2007;62:24–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Filion ME, Barbat-Artigas S, Dupontgand S, Fex A, Karelis AD, Aubertin-Leheudre M. Relationship between protein intake and dynapenia in postmenopausal women. J Nutr Health Aging. 2012;16:616–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Lord C, Chaput JP, Aubertin-Leheudre M, Labonte M, Dionne IJ. Dietary animal protein intake: association with muscle mass index in older women. J Nutr Health Aging. 2007;11:383–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Lemieux FC, Filion ME, Barbat-Artigas S, Karelis AD, Aubertin-Leheudre M. Relationship between different protein intake recommendations with muscle mass and muscle strength. Climacteric. 2013.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Morais JA, Chevalier S, Gougeon R. Protein turnover and requirements in the healthy and frail elderly. J Nutr Health Aging. 2006;{vm10}:272–83.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Vellas BJ, Hunt WC, Romero LJ, Koehler KM, Baumgartner RN, Garry PJ. Changes in nutritional status and patterns of morbidity among free-living elderly persons: a 10-year longitudinal study. Nutrition. 1997;13:515–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Cermak NM, Res PT, de Groot LC, Saris WH, van Loon LJ. Protein supplementation augments the adaptive response of skeletal muscle to resistance-type exercise training: a meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012;96:1454–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Droge W, Schipper HM. Oxidative stress and aberrant signaling in aging and cognitive decline. Aging Cell. 2007;6:361–70.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Droge W. Oxidative stress and ageing: is ageing a cysteine deficiency syndrome? Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2005;360:2355–72.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Droge W, Kinscherf R. Aberrant insulin receptor signaling and amino acid homeostasis as a major cause of oxidative stress in aging. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2008;10:661–78.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Lamb GD, Westerblad H. Acute effects of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species on the contractile function of skeletal muscle. J Physiol. 2011;589:2119–27.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Shi Y, Ivannikov MV, Walsh ME, et al. The Lack of CuZnSOD Leads to Impaired Neurotransmitter Release, Neuromuscular Junction Destabilization and Reduced Muscle Strength in Mice. PLoS One. 2014;9:e1008–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Bounous G, Batist G, Gold P. Immunoenhancing property of dietary whey protein in mice: role of glutathione. Clin Invest Med. 1989;12:154–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Lands LC, Grey VL, Smountas AA. Effect of supplementation with a cysteine donor on muscular performance. J Appl Physiol (1985). 1999;87:1381–5.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Micke P, Beeh KM, Buhl R. Effects of long-term supplementation with whey proteins on plasma glutathione levels of HIV-infected patients. Eur J Nutr. 2002;41:12–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Tsai WY, Chang WH, Chen CH, Lu FJ. Enchancing effect of patented whey protein isolate (Immunocal) on cytotoxicity of an anticancer drug. Nutr Cancer. 2000;38:200–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Fried LP, Tangen CM, Walston J, et al. Frailty in older adults: evidence for a phenotype. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2001;56:M146–56.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Wathan D. Essentials of Strength Training and Conditioning. Champaign IL: Human kinetics, 1994.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Janas LM, Picciano MF, Hatch TF. Indices of protein metabolism in term infants fed human milk, whey-predominant formula, or cow’s milk formula. Pediatrics. 1985;75:775–84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Hughes VA, Frontera WR, Wood M, et al. Longitudinal muscle strength changes in older adults: influence of muscle mass, physical activity, and health. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2001;56:B209–17.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Janssen I. Influence of sarcopenia on the development of physical disability: the Cardiovascular Health Study. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2006;54:56–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Benton MJ, Wagner CL, Alexander JL. Relationship between body mass index, nutrition, strength, and function in elderly individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. J Cardiopulm Rehabil Prev. 2010;30:260–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Sinha-Hikim I, Sinha-Hikim AP, Parveen M, et al. Long-term supplementation with a cystine-based antioxidant delays loss of muscle mass in aging. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2013;68:749–59.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Choquette S, Bouchard DR, Doyon CY, Senechal M, Brochu M, Dionne IJ. Relative strength as a determinant of mobility in elders 67–84 years of age. a nuage study: nutrition as a determinant of successful aging. J Nutr Health Aging. 2010;14:190–5.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Newman AB, Kupelian V, Visser M, et al. Strength, but not muscle mass, is associated with mortality in the health, aging and body composition study cohort. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2006;61:72–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Visser M, Goodpaster BH, Kritchevsky SB, et al. Muscle mass, muscle strength, and muscle fat infiltration as predictors of incident mobility limitations in well-functioning older persons. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2005;60:324–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Visser M, Goodpaster BH, Kritchevsky SB, et al. Muscle mass, muscle strength, and muscle fat infiltration as predictors of incident mobility limitations in well-functioning older persons. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2005;60:324–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Newman AB, Kupelian V, Visser M, et al. Strength, but not muscle mass, is associated with mortality in the health, aging and body composition study cohort. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2006;61:72–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Pisciottano MV, Pinto SS, Szejnfeld VL, Castro CH. The relationship between lean mass, muscle strength and physical ability in independent healthy elderly women from the community. J Nutr Health Aging. 2014;18:554–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Burd NA, Yang Y, Moore DR, Tang JE, Tarnopolsky MA, Phillips SM. Greater stimulation of myofibrillar protein synthesis with ingestion of whey protein isolate v. micellar casein at rest and after resistance exercise in elderly men. Br J Nutr. 2012;108:958–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Cribb PJ, Williams AD, Carey MF, Hayes A. The effect of whey isolate and resistance training on strength, body composition, and plasma glutamine. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2006;16:494–509.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Demling RH, DeSanti L. Effect of a hypocaloric diet, increased protein intake and resistance training on lean mass gains and fat mass loss in overweight police officers. Ann Nutr Metab. 2000;44:21–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Wilborn CD, Taylor LW, Outlaw J, et al. The Effects of Pre- and Post-Exercise Whey vs. Casein Protein Consumption on Body Composition and Performance Measures in Collegiate Female Athletes. J Sports Sci Med. 2013;12:74–9.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Chale A, Cloutier GJ, Hau C, Phillips EM, Dallal GE, Fielding RA. Efficacy of whey protein supplementation on resistance exercise-induced changes in lean mass, muscle strength, and physical function in mobility-limited older adults. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2013;68:682–90.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Kim HK, Suzuki T, Saito K, et al. Effects of exercise and amino acid supplementation on body composition and physical function in community-dwelling elderly Japanese sarcopenic women: a randomized controlled trial. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2012;60:16–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Leenders M, Verdijk LB, Van der Hoeven L, et al. Protein supplementation during resistance-type exercise training in the elderly. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2013;45:542–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Tieland M, Dirks ML, van der Zwaluw N, et al. Protein supplementation increases muscle mass gain during prolonged resistance-type exercise training in frail elderly people: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2012;13:713–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Verdijk LB, Jonkers RA, Gleeson BG, et al. Protein supplementation before and after exercise does not further augment skeletal muscle hypertrophy after resistance training in elderly men. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009;89:608–16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Nilsson M, Holst JJ, Bjorck IM. Metabolic effects of amino acid mixtures and whey protein in healthy subjects: studies using glucose-equivalent drinks. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007;85:996–1004.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Yang Y, Breen L, Burd NA, et al. Resistance exercise enhances myofibrillar protein synthesis with graded intakes of whey protein in older men. Br J Nutr. 2012;108:1780–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Serdi and Springer-Verlag France 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Antony Karelis
    • 1
    • 2
  • V. Messier
    • 3
  • C. Suppère
    • 3
  • P. Briand
    • 3
  • R. Rabasa-Lhoret
    • 3
    • 4
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of KinanthropologyUniversité du Québec à MontréalMontrealCanada
  2. 2.Centre de recherche de l’Institut universitaire de gériatrie de MontréalMontrealCanada
  3. 3.Institut de recherches cliniques de Montréal (IRCM)MontrealCanada
  4. 4.Department of NutritionUniversité de MontréalMontrealCanada
  5. 5.Montreal Diabetes Research Center (MDRC)MontrealCanada

Personalised recommendations