Lifestyle habits and mortality from all and specific causes of death: 40-year follow-up in the Italian Rural Areas of the Seven Countries Study
- 248 Downloads
Three lifestyle factors were investigated in a population study to explore their relationships with a long-term mortality.
Material and Methods
In a cohort of 1564 men aged 45–64 and examined in 1965 within the Italian Rural Areas of the Seven Countries Study, smoking habits, physical activity at work and eating habits (as derived from factor analysis) were determined. During the follow-up 693 men died in 20 years and 1441 in 40 years.
In Cox proportional hazards models men smoking cigarettes (versus never smokers), those having a sedentary activity (versus the very active) and those following the Diet Score 1, indexing an unhealthy Diet (versus men with a Diet close to the healthy Mediterranean style) had highly significant hazards ratios (HR) in relations with 20- and 40-year mortality from all causes, coronary heart disease (CHD), cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer. HR for all causes in 40 years were 1.44 (95% confidence intervals, CI, 1.27 and 1.64) for smokers, 1.43 (CI 1.23 and 1.67) for sedentary people, and 1.31 (CI 1.15 and 1.50) for men with unhealthy diet. Larger HR were found for CHD, CVD and cancers deaths. Combination of 3 unhealthy risk factors versus their absence was associated with 4.8-year life loss in the 20-year follow-up and 10.7-year in the 40-year follow-up.
Lifestyle behavior linked to physical activity and smoking and eating habits is strongly associated with mortality and survival in middle aged men during long-term follow-up.
Key wordsLifestyle mortality survival Seven Countries Study 40-year follow-up.
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 14.Nechuta SJ, Shu XO, Li HL, Yang G, Xiang YB, Cai H et al. Combined impact of lifestyle-related factors on total and cause-specific mortality among Chinese women: prospective cohort study. PLoS Med Sep 2010;14; 7(9). pii: e1000339. doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1000339Google Scholar
- 17.Carlsson AC, Wändell PE, Gigante B, Leander K, Hellenius ML, de Faire U. Seven modifiable lifestyle factors predict reduced risk for ischemic cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality regardless of body mass index: A cohort study. Int J Cardiol Nov 2012;22. doi: 10.1016/j.ijcard.2012.10.045Google Scholar
- 21.Alberti Fidanza A, Seccareccia F, Torsello S, Fidanza F. Diet of Two Rural Population Groups of Middle-Aged Men in Italy. Internat J Vit Nutr Res 1988;58: 442–451Google Scholar
- 23.World Health Organization. International classification of diseases and causes of death. 8th Revision. Geneva, World Health Organization, 1965.Google Scholar
- 25.Menotti A, Lanti M, Nedeljkovic S, Nissinen A, Kafatos A, Kromhout D. The relationship of age, blood pressure, serum cholesterol and smoking habits with the risk of typical and atypical coronary heart disease death in the European cohorts of the Seven Countries Study. Int J Cardiol 2006;106: 157–163.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar