The relationship between body mass index and quality of life in community-living older adults living in the United States
- 375 Downloads
Carrying excess weight is associated with various chronic conditions especially in older adults, and can have a negative influence on the quality of life of this population.
The objective of this study was to estimate the independent (i.e. adjusted for demographic, socioeconomic and health status differences) impact of Body Mass Index (BMI) on health-related quality of life.
A mail survey was sent to 60,000 older adults living in 10 states. Methods: The survey assessed quality of life using the average physical component scores (PCS) and mental component scores (MCS) obtained from the Veterans Rand 12-item (VR-12) health status tool embedded in the survey. Ordinary least squares (OLS) regression techniques were used to estimate the independent impact of each BMI category on quality of life, compared to the impact of other chronic conditions.
A total of 22,827 (38%) eligible sample members responded to the survey. Of those, 2.2% were underweight, 38.5% had a normal BMI, 37.0% were overweight, 18.5% were obese and 1.9% were morbidly obese. Following OLS regression techniques, respondents’ PCS values were statistically significantly lower for the underweight, overweight, obese and morbidly obese BMI categories, compared to the normal BMI group. Compared with all other chronic conditions, being morbidly obese (−6.0 points) had the largest negative impact on the PCS. Underweight was the only BMI category with a statistically significantly lower MCS value.
The greatest negative impacts of the various BMI categories on quality of life were on physical rather than mental aspects, especially for those in the underweight, obese and morbidly obese categories, more so than many other chronic conditions.
Key wordsMedicare quality of life obesity underweight
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 2.CDC. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2009. Health Data Interactive Data Sources. 2009 [cited 2011 August 29, 2011]; Available from: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data_access/hdi/hdi_data_sources.htm.Google Scholar
- 7.Holvoet P, Kritchevsky SB, Tracy RP, Mertens A, Rubin SM, Butler J, et al. The metabolic syndrome, circulating oxidized LDL, and risk of myocardial infarction in well-functioning elderly people in the health, aging, and body composition cohort. Diabetes. 2004;53(4):1068–1073.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 21.Zabelina DL, Erickson AL, Kolotkin RL, Crosby RD. The effect of age on weight-related quality of life in overweight and obese individuals. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2009;17(7):1410–1413.Google Scholar
- 27.Medpac. Medpac Report. 2011 [June 14, 2011]; June:[Available from: http://www.medpac.gov/documents/Jun11_EntireReport.pdf.Google Scholar
- 33.NHLBI. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) Obesity Task Force. Clinical guidelines on the identification, evaluation, and treatment of overweight and obesity in adults-the evidence report. Obes Res. 1998;6((Suppl 2)):51–209.Google Scholar
- 34.Rogers WH, Qian S, Kazis L. Imputing the Physical and Mental Summary Scores (PCS and MCS) for the MOS SF-36 and the Veterans SF-36 Health Survey in the presence of Missing Data. 2004 [December 4, 2012]; Available from: http://hosonline.org/surveys/hos/download/HOS_Veterans_36_Imputation.pdf.Google Scholar
- 35.Kosinski MK, Bayliss MS, Bjorner JB, Ware JE. Improving estimates of SF-36® health survey scores for respondents in missing data. Medical Outcomes Trust Monitor. 2000;5:8–10.Google Scholar
- 36.Ware JE, Kosinski, M., Turner-Bowker, D.M., and Gandek, B. SF-12v2™: How to Score Version 2 of the SF-12® Health Survey. Lincoln, RI: Quality Metric Incorporated. 2002.Google Scholar
- 38.Hawkins K, Bottone FG, Jr., Ozminkowski RJ, Musich S, Bai M, Migliori RJ, et al. The prevalence of hearing impairment and its burden on the quality of life among adults with Medicare Supplement Insurance. Qual Life Res. 2011.Google Scholar
- 40.ICMJE. International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE): Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals: writing and editing for biomedical publication. Haematologica. 2004;89(3):264.Google Scholar
- 42.CMS. Medicare HOS 2009 Medicare Advantage Baseline Report. June 2010. 2010 [March 24, 2011]; Available from: http://www.hosonline.org/surveys/hos/download/HOS_SampleBaseline_C12.pdf.Google Scholar
- 48.Garner RE, Feeny DH, Thompson A, Bernier J, McFarland BH, Huguet N, et al. Bodyweight, gender, and quality of life: a population-based longitudinal study. Qual Life Res. 2011.Google Scholar
- 55.USPSTF. Screening for Obesity in Adults, Topic Page. November 2011. U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. 2011 [cited 2012 5/22/2012]; Available from: http://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/uspstf/uspsobes.htm.Google Scholar
- 56.Final Coverage Decision Memorandum for Intensive Behavioral Therapy for Obesity [database on the Internet]. 2011. Available from: http://www.cms.gov/medicare-coveragedatabase/details/nca-decision-memo.aspx?NCAId=253&ver=1&b c=AAAAAAAAIAAA&.