Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and the risk of depression: A systematic review and meta-analysis
- 740 Downloads
No quantitative systematic review or meta-analysis of population-based epidemiological studies has been conducted to assess the association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels and the risk of depression. This study aimed to summarize the current evidence from cross-sectional and prospective cohort studies that have evaluated the association between 25(OH)D levels and the risk of depression.
Relevant studies were identified by systematically searching the PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and PsycINFO databases through April 2012. Cross-sectional and cohort studies that reported adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association of interest were included. The reported risk estimates for 25(OH)D categories were recalculated, employing a comprehensive trend estimation from summarized dose-response data. A pooled OR was calculated separately for cross-sectional and cohort studies using random-effects models.
In the meta-analysis, 25(OH)D levels were significantly inversely associated with depression in 5 of 11 case-control studies and 2 of 5 cohort studies. The pooled estimate of the adjusted OR of depression in 11 cross-sectional studies (n = 43,137) was 0.96 (95% CI = 0.94–0.99, I2 = 63%) for a 10 ng/ml increase in 25(OH)D levels. The 5 included cohort studies comprised 12,648 participants, primarily elderly individuals, whose serum 25(OH)D levels were measured, and 2,663 experienced depression events during follow-up. The pooled adjusted OR of depression was 0.92 (95% CI = 0.87–0.98, I2 = 50%) for a 10 ng/ml increase in 25(OH)D levels.
Our results indicate an inverse association between serum 25(OH)D levels and the risk of depression. Further studies are warranted to establish whether this association is causal.
Key wordsDepression 25-hydroxyvitamin D dose-response meta-analysis elderly
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 5.Evans DL, Charney DS, Lewis L, Golden RN, Gorman JM, Krishnan KR, Nemeroff CB, Bremner JD, Carney RM, Coyne JC, Delong MR, Frasure-Smith N, Glassman AH, Gold PW, Grant I, Gwyther L, Ironson G, Johnson RL, Kanner AM, Katon WJ, Kaufmann PG, Keefe FJ, Ketter T, Laughren TP, Leserman J, Lyketsos CG, McDonald WM, McEwen BS, Miller AH, Musselman D, O’Connor C, Petitto JM, Pollock BG, Robinson RG, Roose SP, Rowland J, Sheline Y, Sheps DS, Simon G, Spiegel D, Stunkard A, Sunderland T, Tibbits P, Jr., Valvo WJ (2005) Mood disorders in the medically ill: Scientific review and recommendations. Biol Psychiatry 58:175–189.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 7.Jacka FN, Maes M, Pasco JA, Williams LJ, Berk M (2012) Nutrient intakes and the common mental disorders in women. J Affect Disord. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2012.02.018.Google Scholar
- 16.Stroup DF, Berlin JA, Morton SC, Olkin I, Williamson GD, Rennie D, Moher D, Becker BJ, Sipe TA, Thacker SB (2000) Meta-analysis of observational studies in epidemiology: A proposal for reporting. Meta-analysis of observational studies in epidemiology (moose) group. JAMA 283:2008–2012.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 18.Panagioti M, Gooding PA, Tarrier N (2012) A meta-analysis of the association between posttraumatic stress disorder and suicidality: The role of comorbid depression. Compr Psychiatry.Google Scholar
- 23.Hauck Jr WW, Donner A (1977) Wald’s test as applied to hypotheses in logit analysis. J Am Stat Assoc: 851–853.Google Scholar
- 31.Lee DM, Tajar A, O’Neill TW, O’Connor DB, Bartfai G, Boonen S, Bouillon R, Casanueva FF, Finn JD, Forti G, Giwercman A, Han TS, Huhtaniemi IT, Kula K, Lean ME, Punab M, Silman AJ, Vanderschueren D, Wu FC, Pendleton N, group Es (2011) Lower vitamin d levels are associated with depression among communitydwelling european men. J Psychopharmacol 25:1320–1328.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 40.Bertone-Johnson ER, Powers SI, Spangler L, Brunner RL, Michael YL, Larson JC, Millen AE, Bueche MN, Salmoirago-Blotcher E, Liu S, Wassertheil-Smoller S, Ockene JK, Ockene I, Manson JE (2011) Vitamin d intake from foods and supplements and depressive symptoms in a diverse population of older women. Am J Clin Nutr 94:1104–1112.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar