The journal of nutrition, health & aging

, Volume 16, Issue 9, pp 784–790 | Cite as

Dietary protein and beef consumption predict for markers of muscle mass and nutrition status in older adults

  • M. L. Asp
  • J. R. Richardson
  • A. L. Collene
  • K. R. Droll
  • M. A. Belury
Article

Abstract

Objective

To determine the relationship of beef and protein intake to nutrition status, body composition, strength, and biochemical measures of vitamin and mineral status, inflammation and blood lipids in older adults.

Design

Cross-sectional observational study.

Setting

State of Ohio, U.S A.

Participants

142 adults ages 60–88.

Measurements

Subjects completed a Diet History Questionnaire, and questionnaires related to nutrition status and activity. Subjects also underwent measurements of body composition and strength, and a subset took part in a blood draw for biochemical measurements.

Results

Beef intake (g/d) was positively correlated to muscle mass measured by mid-arm muscle area (R=0.128, p=0.030). From multiple linear regression analysis, a loz/d (∼28g/d) increase in beef consumption predicts for a 2.3cm2 increase in mid-arm muscle area. Beef intake was negatively correlated to total (R=−0.179, p=0.035) and HDL (R=−0.247, p=0.004) cholesterol, and there was no association between beef and LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, liver enzymes, or inflammatory markers. Protein intake (% of total energy) was positively correlated to nutrition status measured by the Mini Nutrition Assessment (R=0.196, p=0.020), and calf circumference (R=0.190, p=0.024), and these correlations remained when potential confounders were accounted for in multiple linear regression models. Protein intake was also positively correlated with BMI when analyzed with multiple linear regression.

Conclusions

Beef intake was positively associated with mid-arm muscle area, and protein intake was positively associated with nutrition status, calf circumference, and BMI in older adults. Consuming lean cuts of beef in moderation may be a healthy way in which older adults can increase protein intake, preserve muscle mass and improve nutrition status.

Key words

Beef protein elderly muscle mass nutrition status 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Krinke UB (2002) The role of nutrition in healthy aging. Minn Med 85: 34–39.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Roubenoff R, Hughes VA (2000) Sarcopenia: current concepts. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 55:M716–M724.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Campbell WW, Crim MC, Dallal GE, Young VR, Evans WJ (1994) Increased protein requirements in elderly people: new data and retrospective reassessments. Am J Clin Nutr 60:501–509.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Millward DJ, Fereday A, Gibson N, Pacy PJ (1997) Aging, protein requirements, and protein turnover. Am J Clin Nu 66:774–777Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Rand WM, Pellett PL, Young VR (2003) Meta-analysis of nitrogen balance studies for estimating protein requirements in healthy adults. Am J Clin Nutr 77:109–127.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    World Health Organization (2002) Keep fit for life. Meeting the nutritional needs of older persons. Geneva.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Campbell WW, Trappe TA, Wolfe RR, Evans WJ (2001) The recommended dietary allowance for protein may not be adequate for older people to maintain skeletal muscle. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 56:M373–M380.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Briefel RR, Bialostosky K, Kennedy-Stephenson J, McDowell MA, Ervin RB, Wright JD (2000) Zinc intake of the U.S. population: findings from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988–1994. J Nutr 130:1367S–1373S.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Andres E, Loukili NH, Noel E, Kaltenbach G, Abdelgheni MB, Perrin AE, Noblet-Dick M, Maloisel F, Schlienger JL, Blickle JF (2004) Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) deficiency in elderly patients. CMAJ 171:251–259.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Pennypacker LC, Allen RH, Kelly JP, Matthews LM, Grigsby J, Kaye K, Lindenbaum J, Stabler SP (1992) High prevalence of cobalamin deficiency in elderly outpatients. J Am Geriatr Soc 40:1197–1204.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ma J, Betts NM (2000) Zinc and copper intakes and their major food sources for older adults in the 1994–96 continuing survey of food intakes by individuals (CSFII). J Nutr 130:2838–2843.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Whitney E.N., Rolfes S.R.: Understanding Nutrition. St. Paul: West Publishing Company; 1996.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Subar AF, Thompson EE, Kipnis V, Midthune D, Hurwitz P, McNutt S, Mcintosh A, Rosenfeld S (2001) Comparative validation of the Block, Willett, and National Cancer Institute food frequency questionnaires: the Eating at America’s Table Study. Am J Epidemiol 154:1089–1099.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Thompson FE, Subar AF, Brown CC, Smith AF, Sharbaugh CO, Jobe JB, Mittl B, Gibson JT, Ziegler RG (2002) Cognitive research enhances accuracy of food frequency questionnaire reports: results of an experimental validation study. J Am Diet Assoc 102:212–225.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Vellas B, Guigoz Y, Garry PJ, Nourhashemi F, Bennahum D, Lauque S, Albaiede JL (1999) The Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) and its use in grading the nutritional 1. state of elderly patients. Nutrition 15:116–122.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Heymsfield SB, McManus C, Smith J, Stevens V, Nixon DW (1982) Anthropometric measurement of muscle mass: revised equations for calculating bone-free arm muscle area. Am J Clin Nutr 36:680–690.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Riserus U, Berglund L, Vessby B (2001) Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) reduced abdominal adipose tissue in obese middle-aged men with signs of the metabolic syndrome: a randomised controlled trial. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 25:1129–1135.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Pereira MA, FitzeiGerald SJ, Gregg EW, Joswiak ML, Ryan WJ, Suminski RR, Utter AC, Zmuda JM (1997) A collection of Physical Activity Questionnaires for health-related research. Med Sci Sports Exerc 29: S1–205.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Mathiowetz V, Kashman N, Volland G, Weber K, Dowe M, Rogers S (1985) Grip and pinch strength: normative data for adults. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 66:69–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Katzman R, Brown T, Fuld P, Peck A, Schechter R, Schimmel H (1983) Validation of a short Orientation-Memory-Concentration Test of cognitive impairment. Am J Psychiatry 140:734–739.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Yesavage JA (1988) Geriatric Depression Scale. Psychopharmacol Bull 24:709–711.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Cohen S, Kamarck T, Mermelstein R (1983) A global measure of perceived stress. J Health Soc Behav 24:385–396.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Blumenthal JA, Burg MM, Barefoot J, Williams RB, Haney T, Zimet G (1987) Social support, type A behavior, and coronary artery disease. Psychosom Med 49:331–340.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Johnson CS (2005) Psychosocial correlates of nutritional risk in older adults. Can J Diet Pract Res 66:95–97.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Keller HH (2004) Nutrition and health-related quality of life in frail older adults. J Nutr Health Aging 8:245–252.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Friedewald WT, Levy RI, Fredrickson DS (1972) Estimation of the concentration of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in plasma, without use of the preparative ultracentrifuge. Clin Chem 18:499–502.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Bales CW, DiSilvestro RA, Currie KL, Plaisted CS, Joung H, Galanos AN, Lin PH (1994) Marginal zinc deficiency in older adults: responsiveness of zinc status indicators. J Am Coll Nutr 13:455–462.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Nair KS (2005) Aging muscle. Am J Clin Nutr 81:953–963.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Iannuzzi-Sucich M, Prestwood KM, Kenny AM (2002) Prevalence of sarcopenia and predictors of skeletal muscle mass in healthy, older men and women. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 57:M772–M777.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Baumgartner RN, Koehler KM, Gallagher D, Romero L, Heymsfield SB, Ross RR, Garry PJ, Lindeman Rd (1998) Epidemiology of sarcopenia among the elderly in New Mexico. Am J Epidemiol 147:755–757.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Villareal DT, Banks M, Siener C Sinacore DR, Klein S (2004) Physical frailty and body composition in obese elderly men and women. Obes Res 12:913–920.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Zoico E, Di F, V, Guralnik JM, Mazzali G, Bortolani A, Guariento S, Sergi G, Bosello O, Zamboni M (2004) Physical disability and muscular strength in relation to obesity and different body composition indexes in a sample of healthy elderly women. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 28:234–241.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Reid IR, Evans MC, Ames R (1992) Relationships between upper-arm anthropometry and soft-tissue composition in postmenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr 56:463–466.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Reed RL, Pearlmutter L, Yochum K, Meredith KE, Mooradian AD (1991) The relationship between muscle mass and muscle strength in the elderly. J Am Geriatr Soc 39:555–561.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Adams TH, Walzem RL, Smith DR, Tseng S, Smith SB (2010) Hamburger high in total, saturated and trans-fatty acids decreases HDL cholesterol and LDL particle diameter, and increases TAG, in mildly hypercholesterolaemic men. Br J Nutr 103:91–98.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Beauchesne-Rondeau E, Gascon A, Bergeron J, Jacques H (2003) Plasma lipids and lipoproteins in hypercholesterolemic men fed a lipid-lowering diet containing lean beef, lean fish or poultry. Am J Clin Nutr 77:587–593.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Rolland Y, Lauwers-Cances V, Cournot M, Nourhashemi F, Reynish W, Riviere D, Vellas B, Grandjean H (2003) Sarcopenia, calf circumference, and physical function of elderly women: a cross-sectional study. J Am Geriatr Soc 51:1120–1124.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Wycherley TP, Noakes M, Clifton PM, Cleanthous X, Keogh JB, Brinkworth GD (2010) A high-protein diet with resistance exercise training improves weight loss and body composition in overweight and obese patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 33:969–976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    English KL, Paddon-Jones D (2010) Protecting muscle mass and function in older adults during bed rest. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 13:34–39.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Campbell WW, Barton ML, Cyr-Campbell D, Davey SL, Beard JL, Parise G, Evans WJ (1999) Effects of an omnivorous diet compared with a lactoovovegetarian diet on resistance-training-induced changes in body composition and skeletal muscle in older men. Am J Clin Nutr 70:1032–1039.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Taekema DG. Gussekloo J, Maier AB, Westendorp RGJ, DeCraen JM (2010) Handgrip strength as a predictor of functional, psychological and social health. A prospective population-based study among the oldest old. Age Ageing 39:331–337.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Horwath CC (1993) Validity of a short food frequency questionnaire for estimating nutrient intake in elderly people. Br J Nutr 70:3–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Melanson K, Gootman J, Myidal A, Kline G, Rippe JM (2003) Weight loss and total lipid profile changes in overweight women consuming beef or chicken as the primary protein source. Nutrition 19:409–414.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Sweeten MK, Cross HR, Smith GC, Savell JW, Smith SB (1990) Lean beef: impetus for lipid modifications. J Am Diet Assoc 90:87–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Hodgson JM, Burke V, Beilin LJ, Puddey IB (2006) Partial substitution of carbohydrate intake with protein intake from lean red meat lowers blood pressure in hypertensive persons. Am J Clin Nutr 83:780–787.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Serdi and Springer-Verlag France 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. L. Asp
    • 1
  • J. R. Richardson
    • 1
  • A. L. Collene
    • 1
  • K. R. Droll
    • 2
    • 3
  • M. A. Belury
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Human Nutrition, College of Education and Human EcologyThe Ohio State UniversityColumbusUSA
  2. 2.Department of Statistics, College of Mathematical and Physical SciencesThe Ohio State UniversityColumbusUSA
  3. 3.School of Public Health, Harvard UniversityBostonUSA

Personalised recommendations