The journal of nutrition, health & aging

, Volume 16, Issue 1, pp 14–20

Overweight and obesity as markers for the evaluation of disease risk in older adults

  • O. Rosas-Carrasco
  • T. Juarez-Cedillo
  • L. Ruiz-Arregui
  • C. Garcia Pena
  • G. Vargas-Alarcon
  • Sergio Sanchez-Garcia
Overweight and Obesity as Markers for the Evaluation of Disease Risk in Older Adults

Abstract

Objectives

To explore disease risk through the measurement of BMI scores and waist circumferences in older Mexican adults with favorable health statuses and to determine how this risk is associated with sociodemographic characteristics.

Methods

Using data from the National Health and Nutrition Survey of 2006, we created a cross-sectional design and selected 878 participants (60 years or older) who had favorable health statuses. The demographic data, health status, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and an estimation of disease risk (arterial hypertension, diabetes type 2, and metabolic syndrome) were obtained through the survey.

Results

The prevalence of overweight, obesity, and abdominal obesity were 42.1%, 29.7%, and 80.9%, respectively. Disease risks, which were classified as least, increased, high, or very high, were 14.7%, 17.5%, 38.7%, and 29.1%, respectively. We observed that younger age has a higher risk for disease and that this decreases as age increases until it becomes minimal. After controlling for some risk factors such as tobacco, alcohol, and physical activity, we observed that being female, younger, and married are all factors significantly associated with a high and very high risk for disease. On the other hand, being indigenous, having a low education level, living in a rural setting are all protective factors with a minimum disease risk.

Conclusions

The prevalence rates of overweight, obesity, and abdominal obesity are high among older Mexican adults. We observed that as age increases, disease risk decreases, which also occurs with some lifestyle factors such as living in a rural setting, being indigenous, having a low education level, and being married.

key words

Obesity overweight abdominal obesity healthy elderly disease risk 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Consejo Nacional de Población (2008) El cambio demográfico y la migración internacional en México. Web. http:///www.conapo.gob.mx/prensa/2008/02cepal.pdf. Accessed 30 October 2009.
  2. 2.
    Olaiz G, Rojas R, Barquera S, Shamah T, Aguilar C, Cravioto P et al. (2003) Encuesta Nacional de salud 2000. Tomo 2. La salud de los adultos. Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública. México.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ruiz-Arregui L, Castillo-Martínez L, Orea-Tejeda A, Mejía-Arango S, Miguel-Jaimes A (2007) Prevalence of self-reported overweight-obesity and its association with socioeconomic and health factors among older Mexican adults. Salud Publica Mex 4:S482–S487.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Shamah-Levy T, Cuevas-Nasu L, Mundo-Rosas V, Morales-Ruán C, Cervantes-Turrubiates L, Villalpando-Hernández S (2008) Health and nutrition status of older adults in Mexico: Results of a national probabilistic survey. Salud Publica Mex 50:383–389.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Sánchez-García S, García-Peña C, Duque-López MX, Juárez-Cedillo T, Cortés-Núñez AR, Reyes-Beaman S (2007) Anthropometric measures and nutritional status in a healthy elderly population. BMC Public Health 7:2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Filozof C, Gonzalez C, Sereday M, Mazza C, Braguinsky J (2001) Obesity prevalence and trends in Latin-American countries. Obes Rev. 2(2):99–106.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Rivera JA, Barquera S, González-Cossío T, Olaiz G, Sepúlveda J (2004) Nutrition transition in Mexico and in other Latin American countries. Nutr Rev. 62(7):S149–S157.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Barría RM, Amigo H (2006) Nutrition transition: a review of Latin American profile. Arch Latinoam Nutr 56(1):3–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Nicklas BJ, Cesari M, Penninx BW, Kritchevsky SB, Ding J, Newman A, Kitzman DW, Kanaya AM, Pahor M, Harris TB (2006) Abdominal obesity is an independent risk factor for chronic heart failure in older people. J Am Geriatr Soc 54:413–420.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Goodman-Gruen D, Barret-Connor E (1996) Sex differences in measures of body fat and body fat distribution in the elderly. Am J Epidemiol 143:898–906.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública de México. Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutrición - ENSANUT 2006. Web. http://www.insp.mx/ensanut/. Accessed 25 October 2009
  12. 12.
    Palma O, Shamah Levy T, Franco A, Olaiz G, Méndez-Ramírez I (2006) Metodología. En: Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutrición (ENSANUT-2006). México: Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública. pp 19–33.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Garrow JS, Webster J (1985) Quetelet’s index (W/H2) as a measure of fatness. Int J Obes 9:147–153.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Douketis JD, Paradis G, Keller H, Martineau C (2005) Canadian guidelines for body weight classification in adults: application in clinical practice to screen for overweight and obesity and to assess disease risk. CMAJ 172(8):995–998.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Reyes-Morales H, Vladislavovna Doubova S, García-González JJ, Espinosa-Aguilar A, Jiménez-Uribe R, Peña-Valdovinos A, Mendoza-Núñez A (2009) Guideline for integrated geriatric assessment. Rev Med Inst Mex Seg Soc 47(3):291–306Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    International Diabetes Federation (2006) The IDF consensus worldwide definition of the metabolic syndrome. Web. http://www.idf.org/webdata/docs/MetS_def_update2006.pdf. Accessed 22 October 2009.
  17. 17.
    Castillo-Martínez L, García-Peña C, Juárez-Cedillo T, Rosas-Carrasco Ó, Rabay-Gánem C, Sánchez-García S (2010) Anthropometric measurements and nutritional status in the healthy elderly population. In: Preedy VR (ed) Handbook of Anthropometry: Physical Measures of Human Form in Health and Disease. New York: Springer Publishing Company, Inc. (In press).Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Janssen I, Katzmarzyk PT, Ross R (2002) Body Mass Index, Waist Circumference, and Health Risk: Evidence in Support of Current National Institutes of Health Guidelines. Arch Intern Med 162:2074–2079.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Microsoft Corporation Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS)/Inc. Chicago: 2006.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Booth ML (2007) Assessment of physical activity: An international perspective. Res Q Exerc Sport 71(2):S114–S120.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Gómez LM, Hernández-Prado B, Morales MC, Shamah-Levy T (2009) Physical activity and overweight/obesity in adult Mexican population. The Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006. Salud Publica Mex S51 4:S621–S629.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Chumlea WC, Baumgartner RN (1989) Status of anthropometric and body composition data in elderly subjects. Am J Clin Nutr 50:1158–1166.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Stevens J, Cai J, Pamuk ER, Williamson DF, THUN MJ, Wood JL (1998) The effect of age on association between body-mass index and mortality. N Engl J Med 338:1–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Losoncy K (1995) Does weight loss from middle age to old age explain the inverse weight mortality relation in old age? Am J Epidemiol 141(4):312–321.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Thinggaard M, Jacobsen R, Jeune B, Martinussen T, Christensen K (2010) Is the Relationship Between BMI and Mortality Increasingly U-Shaped With Advancing Age? A 10-Year Follow-up of Persons Aged 70–95 Years. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 65(5):526–531.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Freedman DM, Ron E, Ballard-Barbash R, Doody MM, Linet MS (2006) Body mass index and all-cause mortality in a nationwide US cohort. Int J Obes 30(5):822–829.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Koster A, Leitzmann MF, Schatzkin A, Mouw T, Adams KF, van Eijk JT, Hollenbeck AR, Harris TB (2008) Waist circumference and mortality. Am J Epidemiol. 167(12):1465–1475.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Borges-Yañez SA, Maupomé G, Martinez-Gonzalez M, Cervantez-Turrubiante L, Gutiérrez-Robledo LM (2004) Dietary fiber intake and dental health status in urbanmarginal, and rural communities in central Mexico. J Nutr Health Aging. 8(5):333–339.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Shahar D, Shai I, Vardi H, Fraser D (2003) Dietary intake and eating patterns of elderly people in Israel: who is at nutritional risk? Eur J Clin Nutr 57(1):18–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Marcenes W, Steele JG, Sheiham A, Walls AW (2003) The relationship between dental status, food selection, nutrient intake, nutritional status, and body mass index in older people. Cad Saude Publica 19:809–816.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Savoca MR, Arcury TA, Leng X, Chen H, Bell RA, Anderson AM, Kohrman T, Frazier RJ, Gilbert GH, Quandt SA. (2010) Severe tooth loss in older adults as a key indicator of compromised dietary quality. Public Health Nutr 13(4):466–474.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Pischon T, Boeing H, Hoffmann K, Bergmann M, Schulze MB, Overvad K, van der Schouw YT, Spencer E, Moons KG, et al. (2008) General and abdominal adiposity and risk of death in Europe. N Engl J Med 359(20):2105–2120PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Gruji V, Cvejin MM, Nikoli EA, Dragni N, Jovanovi VM, Kvrgi S, Travar S (2009) Association between obesity and socioeconomic factors and lifestyle. Vojnosanit Pregl 66(9):705–710.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Hajian-Tilaki KO, Heidari B (2007) Prevalence of obesity, central obesity and the associated factors in urban population aged 20–70 years, in the north of Iran: a population-based study and regression approach. Obes Rev 8(1):3–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Yu Z, Lin X, Haas JD, Franco OH, Rennie KL, Li H, Xu H, Pang X, Liu H, Zhang Z, Zou S, Jiao S (2009) Obesity related metabolic abnormalities: distribution and geographic differences among middle-aged and older Chinese populations. Nutrition and Health of Ageing Population in China Study Research Group. Prev Med 48(3):272–278.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Hsieh YM, Sung TS, Wan KS (2010) A survey of nutrition and health status of solitary and non-solitary elders in taiwan. J Nutr Health Aging 14(1):11–14PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Monteiro CA, D’A Benicio MH, Conde WL, Popkin BM (2000) Shifting obesity trends in Brazil. Eur J Clin Nutr 54:342–346.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Martorell R, Khan LK, Hughes ML, Grummer-Strawn LM (1998) Obesity in Latin American women andchildren. J Nutr 128:1464–1473.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Monteiro CA, Moura EC, Conde WL, Popkin BM (2004). Socioeconomic status and obesity in adult populations of developing countries: a review. Bull World Health Organ 82:940–946.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Monteiro CA, Conde WL, Lu B, Popkin BM. Obesity and inequities in health in the developing world. (2004) Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 28:1181–1186.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Williams K, Stern MP, Gonzalez-Villalpando C. Secular trends in obesity in Mexico City and in San Antonio. (2004) Nutr Rev 62:S158–S162.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Bautista LE, Casas JP, Herrera VM, et al; (2009) Latin-American Consortium of Studies in Obesity (LASO). The Latin American Consortium of Studies in Obesity (LASO). Obes Rev 10(3):364–370.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Serdi and Springer Verlag France 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • O. Rosas-Carrasco
    • 1
  • T. Juarez-Cedillo
    • 2
  • L. Ruiz-Arregui
    • 3
  • C. Garcia Pena
  • G. Vargas-Alarcon
    • 4
  • Sergio Sanchez-Garcia
    • 2
    • 5
  1. 1.Instituto de Geriatría. Institutos Nacionales de SaludMexico CityMexico
  2. 2.Epidemiologic and Health Service Research Unit, Aging AreaMexican Institute of Social SecurityMexico CityMexico
  3. 3.National Institute of Medical Sciences and Nutrition “Salvador Zubirán”National Institutes of HealthMexico CityMexico
  4. 4.Department of Molecular Biology and Cardiovascular Disease’s Genomic and Proteomic Study GroupNational Institute of Cardiology Ignacio Chávez. National Institutes of HealthMexico CityMexico
  5. 5.Unidad de Investigación Epidemiológica y en Servicios de Salud, Área EnvejecimientoInstituto Mexicano del Seguro Social. Edificio CORCE, tercer piso. Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXIMéxico D.F.México

Personalised recommendations