Advertisement

The journal of nutrition, health & aging

, Volume 15, Issue 10, pp 905–911 | Cite as

Effects of a short-term personalized intermittent work exercise program (IWEP) on maximal cardio-respiratory function and endurance parameters among healthy young and older seniors

  • T. VogelEmail author
  • P. -M. Leprêtre
  • P. -H. Brechat
  • E. Lonsdorfer
  • A. Benetos
  • G. Kaltenbach
  • J. Lonsdorfer
JNHA: Clinical Trials and Aging

Abstract

Objective

The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of a short-term Intermittent Work Exercise Program (IWEP) among healthy elderly subjects.

Study design and setting

This longitudinal prospective study took place at the Strasbourg University Hospital geriatric department.

Study participants

One hundred and fifty older volunteers, previously determined as being free from cardiac and pulmonary disease, were separated into two age groups: the “young senior” (60.2 ± 3.1 yr) and the “older senior” groups (70.8 ± 5.2 yr).These groups were then subdivided by gender into the “young female senior”, “young male senior” “older female senior” and “older male senior” groups.

Intervention

Before and after the IWEP, all subjects were asked to perform an incremental cycle exercise to obtain their first ventilatory threshold (VT1), maximal tolerated power (MTP), peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) and maximal minute ventilation (MMV). The IWEP consisted of a 30-min cycling exercise which took place twice a week, and was divided into six 5-min stages consisting of 4 min at VT1 intensity and 1 min at 90% MTP.

Measurements

An assessment was made of the effects of the IWEP on maximal cardio-respiratory function (MTP, VO2peak, MMV) and endurance parameters (VT1, heart rate [HR] measured at pretraining VT1 and lactate concentrations at pre-training MTP).

Results

This short-term training program resulted in a significant increase of MTP (from 13.2% to 20.6%), VO2peak (from 8.9% to 16.6%) and MMV (from 11.1% to 21.8%) in all groups (p<0.05). VT1 improved from 21% at pretraining to 27%, while HR at pre-training VT1 as well as lactate concentrations at pre-training MTP decreased significantly in all groups (p<0.05). The post-training values for VO2peak and MMV of the “older seniors” were not significantly different (p>0.05) from the “young seniors” pre-training values for the same parameters.

Conclusion

The most striking finding in this study is that after only 9 weeks, our short-term “individually-tailored” IWEP significantly improved both maximal cardio-respiratory function and endurance parameters in healthy, previously untrained seniors.

Key words

Older subjects physical activity fitness interval training 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Vogel T, Brechat PH, Leprêtre PM, Kaltenbach G, Berthel M, Lonsdorfer J. Health benefits of physical activity in older patients: a review. Int J Clin Pract 2009;63:303–320.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Sun Q, Townsend MK, Okereke OI, Franco OH, Hu FB, Grodstein F. Physical activity at midlife in relation to successful survival in women at age 70 years or older. Arch Intern Med 2010;170:194–201.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Vogel T, Benetos A, Verreault R, Kaltenbach G, Kiesmann M, Berthel M. [Risk factors for Alzheimer: towards prevention?]. Presse Med 2006;35:1309–1316.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Scarmeas N, Luchsinger JA, Schupf N, Brickman AM, Cosentino S, Ming X et al. Physical activity, diet, and risk of Alzheimer disease. JAMA 2009;302:627–637.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Stathokostas L, Jacob-Johnson S, Petrella RJ, Donald H, Paterson DH. Longitudinal changes in aerobic power in older men and women. J Appl Physiol 2004;97:781–789.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Tanaka H, Seals DR. Invited review: dynamic exercise performance in Masters athletes: insight into the effects of primary human aging on physiological functional capacity. J Appl Physiol 2003;95:2152–2162.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Nelson ME, Rejeski WJ, Blair SN, Duncan PW, Judge JO, King AC et al. Physical activity and public health in older adults: recommendation from the American College of Sports Medicine and the American Heart Association. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2007;39:1435–1445.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Vogel T, Brechat P-H, Leprêtre P-M, Kaltenbach G, Berthel M, Lonsdorfer J. [To set up a consultation for physical ability of senior (CPAS) in the geriatric department of the University Hospital of Strasbourg]. Rev Gériatr 2007;32:431–437.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Vogel T, Brechat P-H, Lonsdorfer J. [A proposal for an elderly people fitness consultation and a “tailor-made” short endurance-training programme. Preliminary results of a pilot study]. Science & Sports 2009;24:21–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Lepretre P-M, Vogel T, Brechat P-H, Dufour S, Richard R, Kaltenbach G, Berthel M, Lonsdorfer J. Impact of short-term aerobic interval training on maximal exercise in sedentary aged subjects. Int J Clin Pract 2009;63:1472–1478.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Howley ET, Bassett DR Jr, Welch HG. Criteria for maximal oxygen uptake: review and commentary. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1995;27:1292–1301.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Beaver WL, Wassermann K, Whipp BJ. A new method for detecting anaerobic threshold by gas exchange. J Appl Physiol 1986;60:2020–2027.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Foster VL, Hume GJ, Byrnes WC, Dickinson AL, Chatfield SJ. Endurance training for elderly women: moderate vs low intensity. J Gerontol 1989;44:M184–M188.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Beere PA, Russell SD, Morey MC, Kitzman DW, Higginbotham MB. Aerobic exercise training can reverse age-related peripheral circulatory changes in healthy older men. Circulation 1999;100:1085–1094.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Malbut KE, Dinan S, Young A. Aerobic training in the ‘oldest old’: the effect of 24 weeks of training. Age Ageing 2002;31:255–260.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Warren BJ, Nieman DC, Dotson RG, Adkins CH, O’Donnell KA, Haddock BL et al. Cardiorespiratory responses to exercise training in septuagenarian women. Int J Sports Med 1993;14:60–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Cress ME, Thomas DP, Johnson J, Kasch FW, Cassens RG, Smith EL et al. Effect of training on VO2max, thigh strength, and muscle morphology in septuagenarian women. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1991;23:752–758.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Woo JS, Derleth C, Stratton JR, Levy WC. The influence of age, gender, and training on exercise efficiency. J Am Coll Cardiol 2006;47:1049–1057.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Park SK, Park JH, Kwon YC, Yoon MS, Kim CS. The effect of long-term aerobic exercise on maximal oxygen consumption, left ventricular function and serum lipids in elderly women. J Physiol Anthropol Appl Human Sci 2003;22:11–17.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Stratton JR, Levy WC, Cerqueira MD, Schwartz RS, Abrass IB. Cardiovascular responses to exercise: effects of aging and exercise training in healthy men. Circulation 1994;89:1648–1655.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Spina RJ. Cardiovascular adaptations to endurance exercise training in older men and women. Exerc Sport Sci Rev 1999;27:317–332.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Cunningham DA, Rechnitzer PA, Howard JH, Donner AP. Exercise training of men at retirement: a clinical trial. J Gerontol 1987;42:17–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Misic MM, Valentine RJ, Rosengren KS, Woods JA, Evans EM. Impact of training modality on strength and physical function in older adults. Gerontology 2009;55:411–416.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Deley G, Kervio G, Van Hoecke J, Verges B, Grassi B, Casillas JM. Effects of a oneyear exercise training program in adults over 70 years old: a study with a control group. Aging Clin Exp Res 2007;19:310–315.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Gimenez M, Servera E, Salinas W. Square-wave endurance exercise test (SWEET) for training and assessment in trained and untrained subjects. I. Description and cardiorespiratory responses. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol 1982;49:359–368.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Gimenez M, Servera E, Saunier C, Lacoste J. Square-wave endurance exercise test (SWEET) for training and assessment in trained and untrained subjects. II. Blood gases and acid-base balance. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol 1982;49:369–377.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Lampert E, Oyono-Enguéllé S, Mettauer B, Freund H, Lonsdorfer J. Short endurance training improves lactate removal ability in patients with heart transplants. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1996;28:801–807.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Lonsdorfer J, Lampert E, Mettauer B, Geny B, Charloux A, Oswald M et al. Physical training in heart transplant recipients. In: Rieu M (ed): Physical work capacity in organ transplantation. Med Sport Sci 1998;42:45–46.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Daussin FN, Zoll J, Dufour SP, Ponsot E, Lonsdorfer-Wolf E, Doutreleau S et al. Effect of interval versus continuous training on cardiorespiratory and mitochondrial functions: relationship to aerobic performance improvements in sedentary subjects. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2008;295:R264–R272.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Daussin FN, Ponsot E, Dufour SP, Lonsdorfer-Wolf E, Doutreleau S, Geny B et al. Improvement of VO2max by cardiac output and oxygen extraction adaptation during intermittent versus continuous endurance training. Eur J Appl Physiol 2007;101:377–383.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Morris N, Gass G, Thompson M, Bennett G, Basic D, Morton H. Rate and amplitude of adaptation to intermittent and continuous exercise in older men. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2002;34:471–477.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Lonsdorfer-Wolf E, Bougault V, Doutreleau S, Charloux A, Lonsdorfer J, Oswald-Mammosser M. Intermittent exercise test in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients: how do the pulmonary hemodynamics adapt? Med Sci Sports Exerc 2004;36:2032–2039.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Myers J, Prakash M, Froelicher V, Do D, Partington S, Atwood JE. Exercise capacity and mortality among men referred for exercise testing. N Engl J Med 2002;346:793–801.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Kohrt WM, Malley MT, Coggan AR, Spina RJ, Ogawa T, Ehsani AA et al. Effects of gender, age, and fitness level on response of VO2max to training in 60–71-year olds. J Appl Physiol 1991;71:2004–2011.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Meredith CN, Frontera WR, Fisher EC, Hughes VA, Herland JC, Edwards J, Evans WJ. Peripheral effects of endurance training in young and old subjects. J Appl Physiol 1989;66:2844–2849.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Serdi and Springer Verlag France 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • T. Vogel
    • 1
    • 2
    • 7
    Email author
  • P. -M. Leprêtre
    • 3
  • P. -H. Brechat
    • 4
  • E. Lonsdorfer
    • 5
  • A. Benetos
    • 6
  • G. Kaltenbach
    • 1
  • J. Lonsdorfer
    • 1
  1. 1.Geriatric departmentUniversity HospitalStrasbourgFrance
  2. 2.Department of physiology and EA-3072, Faculty of medicineLouis Pasteur UniversityStrasbourgFrance
  3. 3.Laboratory of physiological adaptation and exerciseFaculty of Sports ScienceAmiensFrance
  4. 4.Center for Public Health AnalysisFrench School of Public HealthRennesFrance
  5. 5.Physiology and Functional Explorations DepartmentUniversity HospitalStrasbourgFrance
  6. 6.Geriatric DepartmentUniversity HospitalNancy-BraboisFrance
  7. 7.Geriatric department, Pavillon Schutzenberger, Hôpital de la RobertsauUniversity HospitalStrasbourgFrance

Personalised recommendations