Dietary intakes of several minerals and vitamins were assessed in two US sub-populations of older men and women between 60 and 80 years as part of the Lipid Research Clinics Program Prevalence Study conducted in the mid-1980s prior to widespread fortification. Dietary intakes were analyzed from 24-hour recalls using the Minnesota Nutrition Coding Center. Descriptive statistics on the two diverse sub-populations were generated for the elderly subjects at the two clinic sites, southern California and Oklahoma. Regression analyses of specific micronutrients were performed while controlling for several variables, namely, age, sex, clinic (region), education, Body Mass Index (BMI), alcohol consumption, and smoking status. Compared to current (1999–2004) Estimated Average Requirements (EARs) and Adequate Intakes (AIs) for three micronutrients without EARs for the US and Canada, several micronutrients were consumed at or close to their EAR values. Exceptions include intakes of vitamin A, vitamin E, folic acid, potassium and calcium which were very low; intakes of thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, and vitamin C were low but closer to the published EAR or AI values. High intakes approaching cut-offs for practically all subjects were found for both groups of elders at the two clinic sites for iron, phosphorus, and sodium. In general, California elderly had somewhat better consumption patterns for the vitamins, but the Oklahomans, males at least, had higher overall mineral intakes. The micronutrient deficits found in this small study suggest that most elderly US citizens were likely to be deficient in five micronutrients and marginally insufficient in four others in the mid-1980s and, despite even greater fortification currently, elderly intakes seem not to have improved substantially since the 1980s, except for subjects who are regular multi-supplement users.
Dietary survey 24-hour recall elderly folic acid vitamin A vitamin E potassium calcium phosphorus sodium and iron
Lipid Research Clinics
Dietary Reference Intake
U.S. Department of Agriculture
U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey