Probiotics as an Adjunct Therapy for the Treatment of Halitosis, Dental Caries and Periodontitis

  • Mariela BustamanteEmail author
  • B. Dave Oomah
  • Yohanna Mosi-Roa
  • Mónica Rubilar
  • César Burgos-Díaz


Probiotics and prebiotics are popular among consumers worldwide as natural approaches to prevent gastrointestinal diseases. The effects of their consumption on the gastrointestinal system have been extensively investigated. Recently, the efficacy of probiotics and prebiotics has been evaluated against naturally developing microbiome imbalance in the human body, such as in the oral cavity, skin, female urogenital tract, and respiratory tract. This review examines the scientific data related to the effects of probiotics on the treatment of diseases occurring in the oral cavity. Probiotics can effectively prevent and treat some infectious diseases in the oral cavity, such as halitosis and periodontitis, and can reduce the development of dental caries and the concentration of harmful bacteria, according to clinical studies. The results of this meta-analysis also suggest the use of probiotics to treat halitosis and periodontitis. However, the evidence may be inconclusive due in part to the use of a wide range of probiotics, non-standardized study design, small population size, poor quality reports, and inconsistent data. Therefore, future studies should homogenize terms and definitions for primary and secondary outcomes, increase the number of volunteers/patients in in vitro tests and clinical studies, and include an evaluation of the combined use of pre- and probiotics.


Probiotics Oral cavity Oral diseases Oral health 


Funding information

This research was supported by CONICYT through FONDECYT project 11160249.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Center of Food Biotechnology and Bioseparations, Scientific and Technological Bioresource Nucleus, BIOREN, and Department of Chemical EngineeringUniversidad de La FronteraTemucoChile
  2. 2.National Bioproducts and Bioprocesses Program, Pacific Agri-Food Research CentreAgriculture and Agri-Food CanadaSummerlandCanada
  3. 3.Scientific and Technological Bioresource Nucleus, BIORENUniversidad de La FronteraTemucoChile
  4. 4.Agriaquaculture Nutritional Genomic Center, CGNATemucoChile

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