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Bovicins: The Bacteriocins of Streptococci and Their Potential in Methane Mitigation

  • Anita Kumari Garsa
  • Prasanta Kumar Choudhury
  • Anil Kumar Puniya
  • Tejpal Dhewa
  • Ravinder Kumar Malik
  • Sudhir Kumar TomarEmail author
Article

Abstract

Bovicin is a type AII lantibiotic, possessing two β-methyllanthionine and a disulfide bridge encoded by bovA gene hitherto unknown a couple of decades ago. Bacteriocins can be useful in directly inhibiting methanogens and/or redirecting H2 to other reductive microorganisms, in particular, propionate producers or reductive acetogens. So far, the role of nisin and bovicin to suppress greenhouse gas (GHG) production under in vitro conditions has been documented. GHG emissions from ruminants are a threat to the environment, because of their role in global warming as well as in climate change. Methane (CH4) produced from livestock farming practices is a potent GHG, comprising 18% of total GHG emissions in the world. Therefore, minimizing enteric CH4 production is quite essential from both the economical livestock production as well as environment perspectives. Strategies for the abatement of CH4 have provided two-way opportunities, viz., improved livestock productivity and reduced GHG emissions. In the past, different strategies have been proposed and tested to mitigate CH4, such as the dietary composition of feeds, ionophores, antibiotics, vaccines, analogues, probiotics, and secondary metabolites of plants and fungi. However, quite a few of these strategies have been adopted at farm level due to their varied effect on animal health and/or residues on animal products. The use of bacteriocins might have potential in inhibiting methanogens in the rumen. A bacteriocin produced by Streptococcus bovis (an isolate from rumen) named bovicin HC5 has been exhibited to decrease CH4 production to an extent of 50%. In this review, authors intend to discuss the sources, structure, biochemical properties, and antimicrobial spectra of bovicins, besides the potential applications with special reference to CH4 mitigation.

Keywords

Bovicin Enteric fermentation Rumen bacteria Ruminants Methanogens Methane mitigation Streptococcus bovis 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors express their sincere gratitude to the Director, ICAR-National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal-132001, India for providing the working facilities.

Funding Information

The author Dr. Anita Kumari Garsa gratefully acknowledges the funding agency, the University Grant Commission (UGC), New Delhi, India for providing financial support in the form of UGC Post-Doctoral Fellowship for Women.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.

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Authors and Affiliations

  • Anita Kumari Garsa
    • 1
  • Prasanta Kumar Choudhury
    • 1
    • 2
  • Anil Kumar Puniya
    • 1
    • 3
  • Tejpal Dhewa
    • 4
  • Ravinder Kumar Malik
    • 1
  • Sudhir Kumar Tomar
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Dairy Microbiology DivisionICAR-National Dairy Research InstituteKarnalIndia
  2. 2.Animal Nutrition DivisionICAR-National Dairy Research InstituteKarnalIndia
  3. 3.College of Dairy Science & TechnologyGuru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences UniversityLudhianaIndia
  4. 4.Department of Nutrition BiologyCentral University of HaryanaMahendergarhIndia

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