Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins

, Volume 11, Issue 4, pp 1163–1171 | Cite as

Effect of Probiotics Bacillus coagulans and Lactobacillus plantarum on Lipid Profile and Feces Bacteria of Rats Fed Cholesterol-Enriched Diet

  • Ladan Aminlari
  • Seyed Shahram ShekarforoushEmail author
  • Saeid Hosseinzadeh
  • Saeed Nazifi
  • Javad Sajedianfard
  • Mohammad Hadi Eskandari


The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Lactobacillus plantarum and Bacillus coagulans on serum lipid profile and lowering potential of probiotic in hypercholesterolemic rats. Twenty-eight male Wistar rats were divided into four groups as follows: (1) control group, fed standard commercial diet; (2) HC group, fed high-cholesterol diet; (3) HC + LP group, fed high-cholesterol diet and gavaging of L. plantarum; and (4) HC + BC group fed high-cholesterol diet and gavaging of B. coagulans. After 28 and 50 days, serum lipid profile; serum ALT and AST; the body and organ weights; fecal total count; Enterobacteriaceae, L. plantarum, and B. coagulans counts; and blood glucose tolerance were measured. We observed that levels of triglyceride, cholesterol, LDL, VLDL, and atherogenic index in serum were significantly lower in the HC + probiotic groups. Also, serum ALT and AST were significantly decreased in probiotic-treated groups. In addition, we found that feeding of a high-cholesterol diet for 50 days produced significant increases in the body weight, in addition to the fact that the administration of L. plantarum and B. coagulans has considerably reduced the body weight gain. B. coagulans and L. plantarum can survive passing through the upper-gastrointestinal tract after oral feeding to the rats and colonized in their colon. These bacteria could be exploited as a potential biotherapeutic remedy to reduce TC, TG, LDL, VLDL, and atherogenic index in hypercholesterolemic condition.


Probiotics Hypercholesterolemia Lipid profile Bacillus coagulans Lactobacillus plantarum 



We would like to thank Miss M. Aghazi and Mr. G. Niknia for their technical assistance.


This research was financially supported by Shiraz University.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Competing Interests

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

This work was approved by the Ethics Committee of the School of Veterinary Medicine, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran (ethical approved number 1392/909342).


  1. 1.
    Ranadheera RDCS, Baines SK, Adams MC (2010) Importance of food in probiotic efficacy. Food Res Int 43:1–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Sudha MR, Chauhan P, Dixit K, Babu S, Jami K (2009) Probiotics as complementary therapy for hypercholesterolemia. Biol Med 1(4):1–13Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Abd El-Gawad IA, El-Sayed EM, Hafez SA, El-Zeini HM, Saleh FA (2005) The hypocholesterolaemic effect of milk yoghurt and soy-yoghurt containing Bifidobacteria in rats fed on a cholesterol-enriched diet. Int Dairy J 15:37–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kumar M, Nagpal R, Kumar R, Hemalatha R, Verma V, Kumar A, Chakraborty C, Singh B, Marotta F, Jain S, Yadav H (2012) Cholesterol-lowering probiotics as potential biotherapeutics for metabolic diseases. Exp Diabetes Res 12:1–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Anandharaj M, Sivasankari B, Parveen R, Rizwana PR (2014) Effects of probiotics prebiotics, and synbiotics on hypercholesterolemia: a review. Chin J Biol 2014:1–7. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ooi LG, Liong MT (2010) Cholesterol-lowering effects of probiotics and prebiotics: a review of in vivo and in vitro findings. Int J Mol Sci 11:2499–2522CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Liong MT, Shah NP (2005) Bile salt deconjugation and BSH activity of five bifidobacterial strains and their cholesterol co-precipitating properties. Food Res Int 38:135–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Liong MT, Shah NP (2005) Acid and bile tolerance and cholesterol removal ability of lactobacilli strains. J Dairy Sci 88:55–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Elshaghabee FMF, Rokana N, Gulhane RD, Sharma C, Panwar H (2017) Bacillus as potential probiotics: status, concerns, and future perspectives. Front Microbiol 8:1490CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Russell BL, Jelley SAA, Yousten AA (1989) Selective medium for mosquito pathogenic strains of Bacillus sphaericus 2362. J Appl Environ Microbiol 55:294–297Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Friedewald WT, Levy RI, Fredrickson DS (1972) Estimation of the concentration of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in plasma, without use of the preparative ultracentrifuge. Clin Chem 18:499–502PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hara AS, Radain N (1978) Lipid extraction of tissues with a low-toxicity solvent. Anal Biochem 90:420–426CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kumar M, Rakesh S, Nagpal R, Hemalatha R, Ramakrishna A, Sudarshan V, Ramagoni R, Shujauddin M, Verma V, Kumar A, Tiwari A, Singh B, Kumar R (2013) Probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Aloe-vera gel improve lipid profiles in hypercholesterolemic rats. Nutrition 29:574–579CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Chiu CH, Lu TY, Tseng YY, Pan TM (2006) The effects of lactobacillus-fermented milk on lipid metabolism in hamsters fed on high-cholesterol diet. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 71:238–245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Haroun BM, Refaat BM, El-Waseif AA, El- Menoufy HA, Amin HA (2013) Hypolipidemic activity of the probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum NRRL B-4496 and their prebiotic exopolysaccharide in vitro and in vivo. JASR 9(1):1015–1020Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kumar M, Verma V, Nagpal R, Kumar A, Gautam SK, Behare PV, Grover CR, Aggarwal PK (2011) Effect of probiotic fermented milk and chlorophyllin on gene expressions and genotoxicity during afb1-induced hepatocellular carcinoma. Gene 490:54–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Lye HS, Rusul G, Liong MT (2010) Removal of cholesterol by lactobacilli via incorporation and conversion to coprostanol. J Dairy Sci 93:1383–1392CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    An HM, Park SY, Lee DK, Kim RJ, Cha MK, Lee SW, Lim HT, Kim KJ, Ha NJ (2011) Anti-obesity and lipid-lowering effects of Bifidobacterium spp. in high fat diet-induced obese rats. Lipids Health Dis 10(116):1–8Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ranasinghe JGS, Silva SSP, Herath N (2013) Changes of serum lipid and proteins during probiotic feeding and its exposure. IJSRP 3:1–5Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Nguyen TDT, Kang JH, Lee MS (2007) Characterization of Lactobacillus plantarum PH04, a potential probiotic bacterium with cholesterol-lowering effects. Int J Food Microbiol 113:358–361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Sirilun S, Chaiyasut C, Kantachote D, Luxananil P (2010) Characterisation of non-human origin probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum with cholesterol-lowering property. Afr J Microbiol Res 4:994–1000Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Oner O, Aslim B, Aydas SB (2013) Mechanisms of cholesterol lowering effects of Lactobacil and Bifidobacteria strains as potential probiotics with their bsh gene analysis. J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol 24:12–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    El Mahmoudy AM, Abdel-Fattah FA, Abd El-Mageid AD, Gheith IM (2014) Effect of the growth promotant mannan-oligosaccharide on the lipogram and organ function profile in hyperlipidemic albino rats. Am J Phytomedicine Clin Ther 2(3):334–347Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Yin YN, Yu QF, Fu N, Liu XW, Lu FG (2010) Effects of four Bifidobacteria on obesity in high fat diet induced rats. World J Gastroenterol 16:3394–3401CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Ma X, Hua J, Li Z (2008) Probiotics improve high fat diet induced hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance by increasing hepatic NKT cells. J Hepatol 49:821–830CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    El-Shafie HA, Yahia NI, Ali HA, Khalil FA, El-Kady EM, Moustafa YA (2009) Hypocholesterolemic action of Lactobacillus plantarum NRRL-B-4524 and Lactobacillus paracasei in mice with hypercholesterolemia induced by diet. Aust J Basic Appl Sci 3(1):218–228Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ladan Aminlari
    • 1
  • Seyed Shahram Shekarforoush
    • 1
    Email author
  • Saeid Hosseinzadeh
    • 1
  • Saeed Nazifi
    • 2
  • Javad Sajedianfard
    • 3
  • Mohammad Hadi Eskandari
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Food Hygiene and Public Health, School of Veterinary MedicineShiraz UniversityShirazIran
  2. 2.Department of Clinical Study, School of Veterinary MedicineShiraz UniversityShirazIran
  3. 3.Department of Physiology, School of Veterinary MedicineShiraz UniversityShirazIran
  4. 4.Department of Food Science and Technology, College of AgricultureShiraz UniversityShirazIran

Personalised recommendations