Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins

, Volume 11, Issue 3, pp 921–930 | Cite as

Improved Production of Spores and Bioactive Metabolites from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens in Solid-state Fermentation by a Rapid Optimization Process

  • Ya-ting Su
  • Chun Liu
  • Zhu Long
  • Hang Ren
  • Xiao-hua GuoEmail author


A dipicolonic acid fluorimetry assay was used instead of plate counting for the assessment of spore yields for enhanced optimization efficiency. The associated parameters, including the ratio of solid substrates, composition of liquid substrates, and cultivation conditions, were systematically optimized in a shake-flask culture. The maximum spore yield of 7.24 × 1010 CFU/g of wet substrate was achieved. The optimization process produced a 25.7-fold increase in spore yields compared with those before optimization. In addition, the maximum release of bioactive metabolites during spore accumulation was subsequently obtained with 573.0 U/g of protease, 188.8 U/g of amylase, 186.8 U/g of cellulase, and 3.45 mg/g of acid-soluble protein. The experiment provides a methodological basis for the rapidly optimized production of Bacillus spores in pure solid-state fermentation.


Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Spore yields Solid-state fermentation Dipicolinic acid Optimization 


Funding Information

This work was financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 31672455), the Outstanding Young Talent Fund from Key Projects in Hubei Province Natural Science Foundation (NSF; 2018CFA077), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (CZT18002, CZT18003).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ya-ting Su
    • 1
  • Chun Liu
    • 1
  • Zhu Long
    • 1
  • Hang Ren
    • 1
  • Xiao-hua Guo
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Provincial Key Laboratory for Protection and Application of Special Plants in Wuling Area of China, College of Life ScienceSouth-Central University for NationalitiesWuhanChina

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