Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins

, Volume 11, Issue 3, pp 765–773 | Cite as

Growth Behavior and Fatty Acid Production of Probiotics, Pediococcus acidilactici and Lactococcus lactis, at Different Concentrations of Fructooligosaccharide: Studies Validating Clinical Efficacy of Selected Synbiotics on Growth Performance of Caspian Roach (Rutilus frisii kutum) Fry

  • Mehdi SoltaniEmail author
  • Gholamreza Badzohreh
  • Saed Mirzargar
  • Mehrdad Farhangi
  • Pezhman Hosseini Shekarabi
  • Alan Lymbery


Growth behavior and production of short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) of two probiotics, Pediococcus acidilactici and Lactococcus lactis, each at 107 cfu/g (P1, L1) and 1010 cfu/g (P2, L2) at different concentrations of fructooligosaccharide (FOS) [0.5% (F1), 1% (F2), and 2% (F3)] were assessed in vitro. The time to reach the maximum growth of the probiotics in all 12 treatments was between 8 to 10 h, with the highest and the lowest growth rates obtained in F1L1P1 (0.34 ± 0.02 OD) and F3L1P1 (0.31 ± 0.05 OD) treatments, respectively. The shortest and the longest generation times were seen in F1L1P1 (112 ± 1.5 min) and F2L1P1 (231 ± 0.5 min) treatments, respectively. The highest and the lowest levels of SCFA production were found in F1L1P1 (17.94 ± 0.74 mg/L) and F3L1P1 (12.98 ± 0.85 mg/L) treatments, respectively. The three synbiotics with the highest SCFA production were then fed to Caspian roach (Rutilus frisii kutum) fry weighing 0.75 ± 0.02 g at 28 °C for 60 days, to assess growth performance and enzymatic activity. The best growth performance in terms of weight gain (WG), protein efficiency ratio (PER), net protein utilization (NPU), and food conversion ratio (FCR) were seen with F1L1P1. In addition, the highest activity levels of the digestive enzymes chymotrypsin, lipase, and amylase were obtained with F1P1L1. The correlation of these in vitro and in vivo data demonstrated that oral application of these two probiotics each at 107 cfu/g feed plus 0.5% FOS can improve growth and gut enzyme activity of Caspian roach fry.


Rutilus frisii Lipase Amylase Chymotrypsin P. acidilactici L. Lactis Fatty acid Synbiotic 



This research work was supported by the University of Tehran and the Centre for Sustainable Aquatic Ecosystems, Murdoch University, and so, their support is fully acknowledged.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest. This work was performed according to the guidelines of the Ethics Committee for Research on Animals at the University of Tehran.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Aquatic Animal Health, Faculty of Veterinary MedicineUniversity of TehranTehranIran
  2. 2.Centre for Sustainable Aquatic Ecosystems, Harry Butler Institute and School of Veterinary and Life SciencesMurdoch UniversityMurdochAustralia
  3. 3.Fisheries Department, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural ResourcesPersian Gulf UniversityBushehrIran
  4. 4.Department of Fisheries and Environment, Faculty of Natural Resources EngineeringTehran UniversityKarajIran
  5. 5.Department of Fisheries Science, Science and Research BranchIslamic Azad UniversityTehranIran

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