Antibacterial Activity of Vancomycin Encapsulated in Poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide) Nanoparticles Using Electrospraying
- 122 Downloads
Vancomycin is often used to treat infections caused by β-lactam-resistant bacteria. However, methicillin-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) acquired resistance to vancomycin, rendering it less effective in the treatment of serious infections. In the search for novel antibiotics, alternative delivery mechanisms have also been explored. In this study, we report on the encapsulation of vancomycin in PLGA [poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide)] nanoparticles by electrospraying. The nanoparticles were on average 247 nm in size with small bead formations on the surface. Clusters of various sizes were visible under the SEM (scanning electron microscope). Vancomycin encapsulated in PLGA (VNP) was more effective in inhibiting the growth of S. aureus Xen 31 (MRSA) and S. aureus Xen 36 than un-encapsulated vancomycin. Encapsulated vancomycin had a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 1 μg/mL against MRSA compared to 5 μg/mL of free vancomycin. At least 70% (w/w) of the vancomycin was encapsulated. Thirty percent of the vancomycin was released within the first 144 h, followed by slow release over 10 days. Vancomycin encapsulated in PLGA nanoparticles may be used to treat serious infections.
KeywordsStaphylococcus aureus PLGA Nanoparticles Electrospraying
The Central Analytical Facility (CAF) of Stellenbosch University for assistance with ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC) and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LCMS).
This work was financed by the FraunHofer Institute for Machine Tools and Forming Technology (IWU), Chemnitz, Germany.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no competing interest.
- 5.Salouti M, Ahangari A (2014) Nanoparticle based drug delivery systems for treatment of infectious diseases. In: Sezer AD (ed) Application of nanotechnology in drug delivery. InTech, pp 155–192Google Scholar
- 23.Ragioto DAMT, Carrasco LDM, Carmona-Ribeiro AM (2014) Novel gramicidin formulations in cationic lipid as broad-spectrum microbicidal agents. Int J Nanomedicine 9:3183–3192Google Scholar
- 29.Ma T, Shang BC, Tang H, Zhou TH, Xu GL, Li HL, Chen QH, Xu YQ (2011) Nano-hydroxyapatite/chitosan/konjac glucomannan scaffolds loaded with cationic liposomal vancomycin: preparation, in vitro release and activity against Staphylococcus aureus biofilms. J Biomater Sci Polym Ed 22:1669–1681CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 31.Kumarasamy KK, Toleman MA, Walsh TR, Bagaria J, Butt F, Balakrishnan R, Chaudhary U, Doumith M, Giske CG, Irfan S, Krishnan P, Kumar AV, Maharjan S, Mushtaq S, Noorie T, Paterson DL, Pearson A, Perry C, Pike R, Rao B, Ray U, Sarma JB, Sharma M, Sheridan E, Thirunarayan MA, Turton J, Upadhyay S, Warner M, Welfare W, Livermore DM, Woodford N (2010) Emergence of a new antibiotic resistance mechanism in India, Pakistan, and the UK: a molecular, biological, and epidemiological study. Lancet Infect Dis 10:597–602CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 35.van Staden ADP (2011) Developing bone cement implants impregnated with bacteriocins for prevention of infections. MSc thesis, Stellenbosch UniversityGoogle Scholar
- 38.Mccall RL, Sirianni RW (2013) PLGA nanoparticles formed by single- or double-emulsion with vitamin E- TPGS. J Vis Exp 82:1–8Google Scholar