The present study was conducted to isolate and characterise Pb-resistant lactic acid bacteria (LAB), and thus determine their potential for use as probiotics against Pb toxicity. A total of 107 Pb-resistant LAB strains were isolated from the gut content of Cyprinus carpio, of which 41 were established to be gram-positive and catalase-negative. Investigation of the Pb-binding ability of these isolated LAB identified seven strains (P2, P6, P7, P9, P16, P19 and P22) with comparatively high Pb-binding activities. These were selected for further screening to establish their Pb tolerance, anti-oxidative capacity and in vitro probiotic characteristics. Strain P16 exhibited both the highest Pb-binding and a relatively good antioxidant capacity. Furthermore, P16 displayed a high survival rate during 4 h of exposure to both low-pH (2.5–3.5) conditions and 10.0% fish bile, and a strong capacity to adhere to fish intestinal mucus (62.4%). Furthermore, P16 showed strong antibacterial activities against all tested fish pathogens. Strains P6, P9, P16, P19 and P22 were susceptible to a range of tested antibiotics, but not to vancomycin. Thus, of the isolated lactobacilli, strain P16 exhibited the best Pb-binding ability, a high level of antioxidant activity and satisfactory in vitro probiotic properties. Biochemical and 16S-rRNA gene analyses identified P16 as Lactobacillus reuteri. Thus, the results of the conducted in vitro tests suggest that the fish-associated P16 Lact. reuteri strain is a promising candidate probiotic, which should undergo further investigation to assess its suitability for use in protecting against lead-exposure-induced toxicities in aquaculture.
Lead toxicity Lactic acid bacteria Lead-binding Antioxidant Probiotic characterisation
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
This research was supported by the ‘Korea Research Fellowship Program’ of the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF), Ministry of Science and ICT (2016H1D3A1909005) and by the NRF grants funded by the Korean government (MSIP) (NRF-2014R1A2A1A11050093, NRF-2017R1C1B2004616).
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Farombi EO, Adelowo OA, Ajimoko YR (2007) Biomarkers of oxidative stress and heavy metal levels as indicators of environmental pollution in African cat fish (Clarias gariepinus) from Nigeria Ogun River. Int J Environ Res Public Health 4(2):158–165. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph2007040011CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gu Y-G, Huang H-H, Lin Q (2016) Concentrations and human health implications of heavy metals in wild aquatic organisms captured from the core area of Daya Bay’s Fishery Resource Reserve, South China Sea. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 45:90–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zhai Q, Yu L, Li T, Zhu J, Zhang C, Zhao J, Zhang H, Chen W (2017a) Effect of dietary probiotic supplementation on intestinal microbiota and physiological conditions of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) under waterborne cadmium exposure. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 110(4):501–513. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10482-016-0819-xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zhai Q, Wang H, Tian F, Zhao J, Zhang H, Chen W (2017b) Dietary Lactobacillus plantarum supplementation decreases tissue lead accumulation and alleviates lead toxicity in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Aquac Res 48(9):5094–5103. https://doi.org/10.1111/are.13326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sinha V, Mishra R, Kumar A, Kannan A, Upreti RK (2011) Amplification of arsH gene in Lactobacillus acidophilus resistant to arsenite. Biotechnology 10:101–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chen P, Zhang Q, Dang H, Liu X, Tian F, Zhao J, Chen Y, Zhang H, Chen W (2014) Screening for potential new probiotic based on probiotic properties and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. Food Control 35(1):65–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Garcia EF, Luciano WA, Xavier DE, da Costa WCA, de Sousa OK et al (2016) Identification of lactic acid bacteria in fruit pulp processing byproducts and potential probiotic properties of selected Lactobacillus strains. Front Microbiol 7:1371Google Scholar
Tong Y, Wang G, Zhang Q, Tian F, Liu X, Zhao J, Zhangac H, Chen W (2016) Systematic understanding of the potential manganese-adsorption components of a screened Lactobacillus plantarum CCFM436. RSC Adv 6(104):102804–102813. https://doi.org/10.1039/C6RA23877GCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jena PK, Trivedi D, Thakore K, Chaudhary H, Giri SS, Seshadri S (2013) Isolation and characterization of probiotic properties of lactobacilli isolated from rat fecal microbiota. Microbiol Immunol 5:1–14Google Scholar
Oh YG, Jung DS (2015) Evaluation of probiotic properties of Lactobacillus and Pediococcus strains isolated from Omegisool, a traditionally fermented millet alcoholic beverage in Korea. LWT - Food Sci Technol 63:437–444CrossRefGoogle Scholar