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Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins

, Volume 11, Issue 1, pp 150–157 | Cite as

The Effect of Probiotics on Halitosis: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

  • Jun-Il Yoo
  • In-Soo Shin
  • Jae-Gyu Jeon
  • Yeon-Mi Yang
  • Jae-Gon Kim
  • Dae-Woo LeeEmail author
Article

Abstract

Although several studies have evaluated the inhibitory effect of probiotics on halitosis, findings are inconsistent. This systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials (RCT) was conducted to summarize the evidence on the effect of probiotics on halitosis. RCT on any type of probiotic treatment with at least 2-week duration were identified through electronic databases (PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials) and hand searched between 1946 and January 17, 2017. Primary outcomes were organoleptic (OLT) scores and volatile sulfur compounds (VSC). Standardized mean difference (SMD) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated. Meta-analysis was conducted to synthesize the evidence. Of the 153 articles identified, three met the inclusion criteria. Meta-analysis revealed that OLT scores (SMD = − 1.93, 95% CI − 2.85 to − 1.02, P < 0.0001) were significantly lower in subjects who received probiotics than in placebo groups, but no significant difference was observed at the VSC concentration (SMD = − 0.02, 95% CI − 2.12 to 2.07, P = 0.98). Current evidence is supportive of recommending probiotics for the management of halitosis. Based on this review, transient (average of 2 weeks) dosing with probiotics (mainly Lactobacillus strains) has a moderate effect on halitosis regarding OLT scores, but we could not confirm the effects of probiotics on the VSC reduction. The available evidence is quantitatively and qualitatively insufficient for further recommendations, especially with regard to administration strategies and pretreatment. Future studies should aim for longer follow-up and standardized administration methods to prove or refute the effect of probiotics on halitosis.

Keywords

Probiotics Halitosis Prevention Supportive oral care Systematic reviews and evidence-based medicine Clinical practice guidelines 

Abbreviations

VSC

Volatile sulfur compounds

OLT

Organoleptic

SMD

Standardized mean difference

SD

Standard deviation

CI

Confidence interval

RCT

Randomized controlled trials

Notes

Funding

The work was supported by the Fund of Biomedical Research Institute, Chonbuk National University Hospital, grant number.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, School of MedicineGyeongsang National University HospitalJinjuRepublic of Korea
  2. 2.Department of Education, College of EducationJeonju UniversityJeonjuRepublic of Korea
  3. 3.Department of Preventive Dentistry, School of Dentistry, BK21 ProgramChonbuk National UniversityJeonjuRepublic of Korea
  4. 4.Department of Pediatric Dentistry and Institute of Oral Bioscience, School of DentistryChonbuk National UniversityJeonjuRepublic of Korea
  5. 5.Research Institute of Clinical MedicineChonbuk National UniversityJeonjuRepublic of Korea
  6. 6.Biomedical Research InstituteChonbuk National University HospitalJeonjuRepublic of Korea

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