Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins

, Volume 11, Issue 1, pp 11–22 | Cite as

Genetic Variation of pln Loci Among Probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum Group Strains with Antioxidant and Cholesterol-Lowering Ability

  • Sundru Manjulata Devi
  • Prakash M. HalamiEmail author


In the present study, 14 different plantaricin-encoding genes of pln loci were studied and compared to available sequences from public domain database of probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum strains. Based upon the presence and absence of selected genes, pln locus was grouped into eight clusters. Further, quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis for seven genes has discriminated the complex pln locus into five types which includes WCFS1 (in Lactobacillus plantarum subsp. plantarum MCC 2976 and MCC 2974 and Lactobacillus paraplantarum MCC 2978), closely related to J51 (in Lb. paraplantarum MCC 2973 and MCC 2977), J23 (in Lb. plantarum MTCC 5422), NC8 (in Lb. paraplantarum MTCC 9483), and a new E1 type (in Lb. plantarum subsp. plantarum E1). It was observed that the plnA, EF, NC8βα, NC81F, NC8HK, and G were expressed in E1 strain. Further, southern hybridization confirmed the chromosome-encoded plantaricin in Lb. plantarum group (LPG) strains. Several PCR assays and DNA sequence analysis of the regions amplified in pln loci of E1 isolate suggested a hybrid variant of NC8 and J51 plantaritypes. This indicates the wide distribution of plantaricin with remarkable variation, diversity, and plasticity among the LPG strains of vegetable origin. Further, the selected strains were able to reduce the growth of Kocuria rhizophila ATCC 9341 by 40–54% within 6 h of co-incubation under in vitro pathogen exclusion assay. These isolates also possessed cholesterol-lowering and antioxidant activity suggesting their application in the development of functional foods.


Lactobacillus plantarum Plantaricin Probiotic Pathogen exclusion Diversity Real-time PCR 



We express our gratitude to the Director, CSIR-CFTRI, for encouragement and facilities. SMD extend her thanks to SERB-Department of Science and Technology, New Delhi, for endorsing the study under start-up grant scheme (Project No. SB/YS/LS-353/2013).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

12602_2017_9336_MOESM1_ESM.doc (94 kb)
ESM 1 List of primers used in the present study (DOC 93 kb)
12602_2017_9336_Fig5_ESM.gif (18 kb)
Fig. S1

Zone of inhibition of K. rhizophila by Lb. plantarum E1 under A) un-induced and B) induced conditions. (GIF 17 kb)

12602_2017_9336_MOESM2_ESM.tif (851 kb)
High resolution image (TIFF 851 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Microbiology and Fermentation Technology DepartmentCSIR—Central Food Technological Research InstituteMysuruIndia

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